Advantages of Shell Form Transformers
These advantages can be summarized as follows:
High short-circuit withstand capability
. The shell-form transformer is a mechanicallystrong design for a transformer, with the coils arranged vertically and completelysurrounded on all sides by the iron core. The tank of the shell-form transformer is a“form-fit design” that fits just over the core, creating a very strong reinforcement againstpossible coil movement. This helps the transformer to withstand the high mechanicalforces that are experienced during an external short-circuit condition. Also, the coils arearranged in alternating groups of high voltage and low voltage windings, referred to asan interleaved arrangement. This allows the short-circuit forces of the high and lowvoltage windings to act in opposing directions, thus partially canceling each other outand further increasing the short-circuit withstand capability of the transformer. For ashell-form transformer, as the transformer capacity increases, the size of each coil iskept similar, but more numbers of high and low voltage coil groups are added, whichreduces the ampere-turns per winding group. This keeps the short-circuit force insidethe transformer relatively constant even for very large capacity units.
High mechanical strength
. The strong design of the shell-form transformer also hasother benefits besides short-circuit withstand strength. The shell-form transformer alsohas high seismic withstand strength. Along with seismic strength, the shell-formtransformer can also withstand the demands of transportation by various means,including ocean vessels and railroads. This allows the transformer to remain intactduring shipping, without the need for internal shipping braces. Shell-form transformerscan even be shipped laid on their sides for instances where the inland transportationdimensional limitations are severe.
High dielectric strength
. The shell-form winding design can achieve a very highdielectric strength against impulse voltage due to the design of the windings andinsulation structure. In general, the number of coils in a shell-form transformer isrelatively low and the surface area of each coil is large. This creates a largecapacitance between the coils and a low capacitance to ground. This allows for thesurge distribution across the winding to be almost uniform, with no oscillations. Thestatic plate located on the line end of each winding also enhances the surge voltagedistribution and plays an important role in smoothing the steep front of the impulsewave. The oil-immersed transformer insulation system generally consists of specialpaper and pressboard materials immersed in oil that provide insulation for the copperconductors and other internal parts of the transformer. In shell-form transformers, thesepressboard materials that surround the coils subdivide the oil insulation into many smallgaps. The oil impregnated pressboard materials have a much higher dielectric strengththan the oil gaps. This insulation design leads to a very high dielectric strength. Inshell-form transformers, the coils and solid insulation are also easily arranged alongequipotential lines, providing a high dielectric strength against insulation breakdown.Due to this arrangement, insulation breakdown cannot develop unless the solidinsulation is punctured. And from the insulation structure of shell-form transformers, fora discharge to break down the insulation and cause an internal fault in the transformersit must puncture several layers of this pressboard material. This provides a highlyreliable insulation system. For these reasons, shell-form transformers offer anadvantage for extra high voltage applications.
Excellent control of leakage magnetic flux
. The shell-form transformer provides forexcellent control of leakage magnetic flux to prevent against local heating inside thetransformer. The coil windings are almost completely surrounded by the iron core,