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Ship Hydrodynamics Lecture Notes Part 5 Propeller Theories4

Ship Hydrodynamics Lecture Notes Part 5 Propeller Theories4

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11/13/2013

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5. PROPELLER THEORIES
a)

Momentum Theory
It was originally intended to provide an analytical means for evaluating shippropellers (Rankine 1865 & Froude 1885). Momentum Theory is also well known asDisk Actuator Theory. Momentum Theory assumes that

the flow is inviscid and steady (ideal flow), therefore the propeller does notexperience energy losses due to frictional drag

also the rotor is thought of as an actuator disk with an infinite number of blades, each with an infinite aspect ratio

the propeller can produce thrust without causing rotation in the slipstream.From the basic thrust equation, we know that the amount of thrust depends on themass flow rate through the propeller and the velocity change through the propulsionsystem. In the above figure the flow is proceeding from left to right. Let us denote thesubscripts "A and C" for the stations assumed to be far upstream and downstream of the propeller respectively and the location of the actuator disc by the subscript "B".The thrust (T) is equal to the mass flow rate (
.
m
) times the difference in velocity (V).)(
.
A
m
=
(1) There is no pressure-area term because the pressure at the C is equal to the pressure atA.The power P
D
absorbed by the propeller is given by:)(21
22.
A D
mP
=
(2) V
A
V
B
V
C
Actuator disc at propeller plane

TShip direction

2
However delivered power P
D
is also equal to the work done by thrust force:
B D
TV P
=
(3) By equating Eqs. (2) and (3), the velocity at the propeller position becomes:)(21
A B
+=
(4) If V
B
and V
C
are expressed in terms of the velocity V
A
, then:
1
a Aa A B
uu
+=+=
(5) where u
a
and u
a1
are known as the increases in the velocities at the propeller discposition B and C.As a consequence the slipstream must contract between the conditions existing farupstream and those existing downstream in order to satisfy the continuity equation:
a A Ba A A A  B B A A  B A
Au Au A  A A A QQQ
)()( rateflowvolume
1
+=+= ====
ρ  ρ  ρ
(6) where4 and4 ,4
222
B A A
D A D A D A
π π π
===
We can obtain that:
21222
Duu D Du D
a Aa A Aa A A
++=+=
(7) The law of conservation of momentum equates the force exerted on the fluid with thenet outflow of momentum. The control volume is the stream tube from A
A
to A
C
. Themass per unit time through A
A
is
ρ
V
A
A
A
and the momentum inflow is
ρ
V
A2
A
A
.Similarly the momentum outflow through A
C
can be written and the conservation of momentum requires that:0)(
212
=++
Au A
a A A A
ρ  ρ
(8)

3
Using Eq. (7) this can be written as:
12
)(4
aa A
uu D
+=
ρ π
(9) The thrust can also be written as T=
Δ
pAWe can use Bernoulli's equation to relate the pressure and velocity upstream anddownstream of the propeller disk, but not through the disk. For the upstream anddownstream of the disk, respectively:
p pu pu  pu p
Ba Aa A  Ba A A A
Δ+++=++ ++=+
22122
)(21)(21)(2121
ρ  ρ  ρ  ρ
(10)p
A
=p
C
Subtracting the above equations gives:)2(21
211
aa A
uu p
+=Δ
ρ
(11) A second formulation for the propeller thrust is:
112
)2(4
aa A
uu D
+=
ρ π
(12) Then combining Eqs. (9) and (12) it is derived that:
aa
uu
2
1
=
(13) This shows that half of the acceleration takes place before the propeller disc and theremaining half after the propeller disc. In other words the axial induced velocity at thepropeller (u
a
) is the half the axial induced velocity at the C.The relation between the propeller thrust and the axial induced velocity is:
aa A
uu D
2)(4
2
+=
ρ π
(14) The propeller thrust is made non-dimensional with the propeller area and the inflowvelocity V
A
:
22
214
A
D
ρ π
=
(15) where C
T