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Ten Years of Space Research in the USSR

Ten Years of Space Research in the USSR

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Published by Bob Andrepont
Translation of a Soviet article on space research.
Translation of a Soviet article on space research.

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Jan 30, 2011
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08/25/2011

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J'
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Ib
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TECHNICAL TRANSLATION
NASA
TT
F-11,500
Y
0
0
In
-.
n
4
TEN YEARS
OF
SPACE RESEARCH
IN
THE USSR
I
LL
I-
M.K.
Tikhonravov,
B.V.
Raushenbakh,
G.A.
Skuridin
I-
and
O.L.
Vaysberg
<
v,
<
z
Translation of: "Desyat' let issledovaniya kosmosa v
SSSR";
Kosmicheskiye Issledovaniya, Vol.
5,
No.
5,
pp.
643-679, 1967
(THRU)
/
(CATEGORY)
GPO PRICE
$
CFSTI
PRICE(S)
$
Hard
copy
(HC)
t-
Microfiche
(MF)
ff
653
July
65
1.
I
I
,
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS ANDSPACE ADMININSTRATIONWASHINGTON, D.C.
20546
FEBRUARY
1968
 
NASA
TT
F-11,500
TEN YEARS
OF
SPACE
RESEARCHIN THE USSR
M.K.
Tikhonravov,
B.V.
Taushenbakh,
G.A.
Skuridin and
O.L.
Vaysberg
ABSTRACT:
The
first
part
of
the paper containsa chronoZogicaZ account
of
the deveZoprnent
of
Soviet astronautics
from
the Zaunching
of
the
first
sateZZite in
1957
untiZ
the present. Thepurposes
of
the sateZZites and their crews andperformanca are discussed. The second part
of
the paper covers various natural phenomena oc-curing at high aZtitudes and
in
space, and de-scribes
hou
Soviet spacecraft have provided ad-ditiona
2
know Zedge about these phenomena. Thetext contains photographs
of
representative sat-elZites
from
each series.
The ten years which have passed since the day when the
first
/643;':
artificial
Earth satellite
was
launched into space have been markedby
a
rapid development
of
spacecraft technology and astrophysics.
A
new
era
in human history began on October
4,
1957
-
the
era
ofspace flight.The
first
ideas regarding human exploration of space appearedin Russia
at
the turnofthe century in the works
of
the great
K.
E.
Tsiolkovskiy.
His
works, which have become generally known every-where today,
as
well
as
the work
of
his successors,
were
naturallyof
a
purely theoretical nature.
It
was
only in the
1920's
and
30's
that articles dealing with rocket technology went beyond the fieldof theoreticians and popular science
writers
and became the subject
of
concentrated activity of scientists and engineers affiliatedwith scientific institutions and engineering organizations. Thesuccesses of the pre-war years were expanded and developed duringthe
1940's
and
1950's.
The leading scientist in the field of spacetechnology and one of
its
organizers
was
Academician
S.
P.
Korolev,who began his investigations more than
35
years ago.
A
large groupof scientists and engineers worked together with
S.
P.
Korolev, with-out whose valuable contribution the success of the entire venturewould have been impossible.
We
must not forget that in order
for
the exploration of spaceto begin,
it
was
necessary to solve
a
great many scientific problems.
It
was
necessary to develop complete designs
for
the components
of
large-scale
carrier
rockets, capable of lifting enormous payloads,ensuring
all
the required margins of safety; to incorporate in theirdesign the required aerodynamic features and characteristics whichNumbers in the margin indicate original pagination in the text.
1
 
would take account of possible
elastic
vibrations of the body
of
the rocket and the oscillation
of
the liquid volumes in the fuelchambers;
it
was
necessary to determine the most advantageous condi-tions for separating the rocket into stages and studying the optimumflight projectory.
It
was
necessary to develop powerful liquid fuel rocket motorswith
a
high specific thrust, ensure reliable cooling of the combus-tion chamber and
jet,
and guarantee reliability of operation
of
themotors, solving the problem of doing away with dangerous high-fre-quency vibrations in the motor which sometimes occur due to irregu-larity in the burning process, etc.
It
was
necessary to develop
a
system of automatic control forthe flight of the rocket, which would follow
a
given flight trajectorywith
a
high degree of accuracy, and would control not only the posi-tion of the rocket in space but the operation of the motors
as
well.
The problem of building such
a
system
was
complicated by the
fact
that working
it
out required consideration of the
elastic
vibrations
of
the body of the rocket and the oscillation of the fuel in thechambers.
It
was
necessary to build
a
launch-/6ing complex on the ground, without which
it
would have been impossible
to
launchspacecraft.
If
we
are
talking about the designof the space vehicles themselves
(arti-
ficial Earth
satellites
and unmannedinterplanetary stations), their designrequired the solution of no
less
compli-cated scientific and technical problems
:
1.
The design
of
mechanisms ableto operate under conditions of weight-lessness and the high vacuum of inter-planetary space while maintanining
the
required temperature; the solution
of
problems regarding energy sourceson board, the development of systems
of
automatic control on board, etc.
2.
The design of control systems
K.E.
Tsiolkovskiy for spacecraft, able to orient them
as
desired and to place them in
a
givenposition, even changing the flight
tra-
jectory
if
necessary. Unlike the control systems of the carrierrockets, the orienting systems frequently had to operate continuallyfor many months.3. The design of
a
ground radio complex
for
measurements
of
2

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