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Eye

Eye

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Published by cherubrock

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Published by: cherubrock on Jan 31, 2011
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01/31/2011

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ST.AMATIEL TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
Malolos, City BulacanResearchInCOMMUNICATION SKILLS IIABORTION
Submitted by :NAME NAME NAMENAME NAMESubmitted to :MS.MERCEDITA B. ROBLES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
1.
 
1
Overview 2
.
 
2 Evolution 3
.
 
3 Types of eye 4
.
 
3
.1
Non-compound eyes a
.
 
3
.1.1
Pit eyes  b
.
 
3
.1.
2 Spherical lensed eye c
.
 
3
.1.
3 Multiple lenses d
.
 
3
.1.
4 Refractive cornea e
.
 
3
.1.5
Reflector eyes 
5.
 
3
.
2 Compound eyes a
.
 
3
.
2
.1
Apposition eyes  b
.
 
3
.
2
.
2 Superposition eyes c
.
 
3
.
2
.
3 Parabolic superposition d
.
 
3
.
2
.
4 Other  e
.
 
3
.
2
.5
Nutrients of the eye 6
.
 
4 Relationship to life requirements 7
.
 
5
Visual acuity 8
.
 
6 Perception of colours 9
.
 
7 Rods and cones 
10
.
 
8 Pigmentation
 
INTRODUCTION
Eyes
areorgansthat detectlight, and convert it to electro-chemical impulses in neurons
.
Thesimplest photoreceptors in conscious vision connect light to movement
.
In higher organisms theeye is a complexopticalsystem which collects light from the surrounding environment; regulatesits intensity through adiaphragm;focusesit through anadjustableassembly of lensesto form an image; converts this image into a set of electrical signals; and transmits these signals to the brain,through complex neural pathways that connect the eye, via theoptic nerve, to thevisual cortex  and other areas of the brain
.
Eyes with resolving power have come in ten fundamentally differentforms, and 96% of animalspecies possess a complex optical system
.
Image-resolving eyes are present inmolluscs,chordatesandarthropods
.
 The simplest "eyes", such as those inmicroorganisms, do nothing but detect whether thesurroundings are light or dark , which is sufficient for theentrainmentof circadian rhythms
.
Frommore complex eyes, retinal photosensitive ganglion cellssend signals along theretinohypothalamic tractto thesuprachiasmatic nucleito effect circadian adjustment
 
BODY
Ov
er
vi
ew
 
Eye of thewisent,the European bisonComplex eyes can distinguish shapes andcolours
.
Thevisualfields of many organisms,especially predators, involve large areas of  binocular visionto improvedepth perception; in other  organisms, eyes are located so as to maximize the field of view, such as inrabbitsandhorses, which havemonocular vision
.
 The first proto-eyes evolved among animals 600 million years ago, about the time of theCambrian explosion
.
The last common ancestor of animals possessed the biochemical toolkitnecessary for vision, and more advanced eyes have evolved in 96% of animal species in six of the thirty-plus main phyla
.
[1]
In mostvertebratesand somemolluscs, the eye works by allowing light to enter and project onto a light-sensitive panel of cells, known as theretina, at the rear of  the eye
.
Thecone cells(for colour) and therod cells(for low-light contrasts) in the retina detect and convert light into neural signals for vision
.
The visual signals are then transmitted to the brainvia theoptic nerve
.
Such eyes are typically roughly spherical, filled with atransparentgel-like substance called thevitreous humour , with a focusinglensand often aniris; the relaxing or  tightening of the muscles around the iris change the size of the pupil, thereby regulating theamount of light that enters the eye, and reducing aberrations when there is enough light
.
 The eyes of mostcephalopods,fish,amphibiansandsnakeshave fixed lens shapes, and focusing vision is achieved by telescoping the lens²similar to how acamerafocuses
.
 

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