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Chapter 2 Miller Indises

Chapter 2 Miller Indises

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Chapter 2: Semiconductor Fundamentals
2.2. Crystals and crystal structures
2.2.1.Bravais lattices2.2.2.Miller indices, crystal planes and directions2.2.3.Common semiconductor crystal structures2.2.4.Growth of semiconductor crystalsSolid materials are classified by the way the atoms are arranged within the solid. Materials in which atomsare placed at random are called amorphous. Materials in which atoms are placed in a high ordered structureare called crystalline. Poly-crystalline materials are materials with a high degree of short-range order and nolong-range order. These materials consist of small crystalline regions with random orientation called grains,separated by grain boundaries.Of primary interest in this text are crystalline semiconductors in which atoms are placed in a highly orderedstructure. Crystals are categorized by their crystal structure and the underlying lattice. While some crystalshave a single atom placed at each lattice point, most crystals have a combination of atoms associated witheach lattice point. This combination of atoms is also called the basis.The classification of lattices, the common semiconductor crystal structures and the growth of single-crystalsemiconductors are discussed in the following sections.
2.2.1 Bravais lattices
The Bravais lattices are the distinct lattice types, which when repeated can fill the whole space. The latticecan therefore be generated by three unit vectors, and a set of integers
,
and
m
so that eachlattice point, identified by a vector , can be obtained from:(2.2.1)The construction of the lattice points based on a set of unit vectors is illustrated by Figure 2.2.1.
Figure 2.2.1:
The construction of lattice points using unit vectorsIn two dimensions, there are five distinct Bravais lattices, while in three dimensions there are fourteen. Thelattices in two dimensions are the square lattice, the rectangular lattice, the centered rectangular lattice, the
 
hexagonal lattice and the oblique lattice as shown in Figure 2.2.2.It is customary to organize these lattices in groups, which have the same symmetry. An example is the rectangular and the centered rectangular lattice.As can be seen on the figure, all the lattice points of the rectangular lattice can be obtained by a combinationof the lattice vectors . The centered rectangular lattice can be constructed in two ways. It can beobtained by starting with the same lattice vectors as those of the rectangular lattice and then adding anadditional atom at the center of each rectangle in the lattice. This approach is illustrated by Figure2.2.2c).The lattice vectors generate the traditional unit cell and the center atom is obtained by attaching twolattice points to every lattice point of the traditional unit cell. The alternate approach is to define a new set of lattice vectors, one identical to and another starting from the same origin and ending on the center atom.These lattice vectors generate the so-called primitive cell and directly define the centered rectangular lattice.
Figure 2.2.2.:
The five Bravais lattices of two-dimensional crystals: (a) square, (b) rectangular, (c)centered rectangular, (d) hexagonal and (e) obliqueThese lattices are listed in Table 2.2.1.
a
1
and
a
2
are the magnitudes of the unit vectors and
α
is the angle between them.
Table 2.2.1.:
Bravais lattices of two-dimensional crystalsThe same approach is used for lattices in three dimensions. The fourteen lattices of three-dimensionalcrystals are classified as shown in Table2.2.2, where
a
1
,
a
2
and
a
3
are the magnitudes of the unit vectorsdefining the traditional unit cell and
α
,
β
and
γ 
are the angles between these unit vectors.
 
Table 2.2.2.:
Bravais lattices of three-dimensional crystalsThe cubic lattices are an important subset of these fourteen Bravais lattices since a large number of semiconductors are cubic. The three cubic Bravais lattices are the simple cubic lattice, the body-centeredcubic lattice and the face-centered cubic lattice as shown in Figure2.2.3. Since all unit vectors identifyingthe traditional unit cell have the same size, the crystal structure is completely defined by a single number.This number is the lattice constant,
a
.
Figure 2.2.3.:
The simple cubic (a), the body-centered cubic (b) and the face centered cubic (c) lattice.
2.2.2 Miller indices, crystal planes and directions
Crystal planes of a crystal are characterized by their Miller indices. The Miller indices are defined as thesmallest possible integers, which have the same ratios as the inverse of the intersections of a given planewith a set of axis defined by the unit vectors of that crystal. This definition is further illustrated with Figure2.2.4.The intersections between the plane and the axis occur at p, q, and r. The corresponding Miller indicesare therefore , where A is an integer chosen such that the Miller indices are the smallest possibleintegers. It should be clear to the reader that the resulting Miller indices are the same for all parallel planesof atoms in a crystal.

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