Chapter 2: Semiconductor Fundamentals
2.2. Crystals and crystal structures
2.2.1.Bravais lattices2.2.2.Miller indices, crystal planes and directions2.2.3.Common semiconductor crystal structures2.2.4.Growth of semiconductor crystalsSolid materials are classified by the way the atoms are arranged within the solid. Materials in which atomsare placed at random are called amorphous. Materials in which atoms are placed in a high ordered structureare called crystalline. Poly-crystalline materials are materials with a high degree of short-range order and nolong-range order. These materials consist of small crystalline regions with random orientation called grains,separated by grain boundaries.Of primary interest in this text are crystalline semiconductors in which atoms are placed in a highly orderedstructure. Crystals are categorized by their crystal structure and the underlying lattice. While some crystalshave a single atom placed at each lattice point, most crystals have a combination of atoms associated witheach lattice point. This combination of atoms is also called the basis.The classification of lattices, the common semiconductor crystal structures and the growth of single-crystalsemiconductors are discussed in the following sections.
2.2.1 Bravais lattices
The Bravais lattices are the distinct lattice types, which when repeated can fill the whole space. The latticecan therefore be generated by three unit vectors, and a set of integers
so that eachlattice point, identified by a vector , can be obtained from:(2.2.1)The construction of the lattice points based on a set of unit vectors is illustrated by Figure 2.2.1.
The construction of lattice points using unit vectorsIn two dimensions, there are five distinct Bravais lattices, while in three dimensions there are fourteen. Thelattices in two dimensions are the square lattice, the rectangular lattice, the centered rectangular lattice, the