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Engine Fuel Map Design

Engine Fuel Map Design

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Published by: matt_peacock on Jan 31, 2011
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Automotive Engineering: Engine Fuel Map Design
George Alexandrovgpalexandrov@gmail.com Kaitlin BerginRedhead3991@yahoo.com Xiao Ying Zhaoxzhao@peddie.org Rolih Ferdinandferdinandr@comcast.net Jeffrey Kowalski jmanrox91@aol.com 
Abstract
 In order to understand how tobring out the most power from a car’sengine, we needed to learn how anengine works. The main focus of thisresearch was to tune the engine and create a fuel map that would allow it torun at its optimum level. We used theWin Tec-GT computer software to test the performance of a 2002 YamahaYZFR6 engine that the Rutgers 2008 Racing Team uses in their car. To easilytest the engine we connected it to adynamometer that simulated a load onthe engine, making it do work and simulate real life driving. The engineincluded numerous sensors that relayed information about conditions such ascrank position and coolant temperature,allowing the Tec-GT to communicatewith the engine and adjust parameters.Our main areas of interest withthe Tec-GT and the tuning of the enginewere the ignition advance and volumetric advance tables. By changingdifferent values on these tables we wereable to adjust the amount of fuel that entered the engine as well as the time of injection. The two tables were adjusted until the engine performed at its highest  potential at each possible variation of load and RPM. However, even when thismap was completed some effects could not be tested without driving the car,such as acceleration changes in theengine.
1. Introduction
Modern automotive technologyrelies on electronically controlleddevices to monitor and operate the car’sengine. An important automotiveprocess that determines the performanceof the engine is the fuel injectionprocess. Fuel injection is the process thatcauses combustion in an engine bycombining fuel and air. The fuelinjection system was invented in the1890s and was used in diesel engines,aircraft, and tanks starting in the 1920sthrough World War II; it beganappearing commercially in gasoline-fueled cars in the 1950s (Mercedes Benzand Chevy both had models using fuelinjection), and by the 1980s was thestandard combustion system used inautomobile engines in the United Statesand Europe [2]. In the past, internalcombustion engines used carburetors tomix the fuel and air to a combustiblestate. As cars became more complex andgovernment regulations related toexhaust emissions became stricter,however, carburetors have been replacedwith electronic fuel injection systems,which can more precisely control theflow of fuel to the engine. Theefficiency of the fuel injection system
 
will determine how well the engine runsand ultimately how well the carperforms.Today’s automotive engines usecomputer controlled systems to regulatefuel injection, allowing for precisemixing of fuel and air. This results inoptimum engine performance, better fueleconomy, and lower exhaust emissions.In this project, we designed, tested, andrefined an engine fuel map utilizingcomputer controlled systems, andmodified the engine in accordance withour findings in order to achieveimproved engine performance. Weworked with the Rutgers FormulaRacing Team and their formula stylerace car in order to maximize thehorsepower of their engine, utilizing theTec-GT software and dyno.
2. Background Information
A car engine is a machine whosebasic purpose is to convert fuel intomotion. An internal combustion engineaccomplishes this conversion byisolating a small amount of fuel in acontained space and igniting it,converting it to an expanding gas thatreleases energy. That energy getstranslated into motion by the manydifferent parts of the engine workingtogether in a precise and continuouscycle of activity [3]. Understanding thevarious parts of the engine and how theywork together is an important first stepin being able to improve the efficiencyand performance of the engine.
2.1 Parts of the Engine and WhatThey Do
Some of the most important partsof modern automobile engines includethe pistons, the crankshaft, the camshaft,the engine control unit (ECU), theinjectors, the spark coil, the spark plugsand the valves (See Figure 1).
Figure 1. Some of the Parts of a Four StrokePiston Engine(E) Exhaust camshaft, (I) Intake camshaft, (S)Spark plug, (V) Valves, (P) Piston, (R)Connecting rod, (C) Crankshaft, (W) Water jacket for coolant flow [10].
Inside the main body of theengine (the engine block) are cylinders.Modern cars have engines that havefour, six or eight cylinders. Inside eachcylinder is a piston that moves up anddown. When fuel is injected into thecylinder, the movement of the pistoncontrols the volume of air within thecylinder, providing space for the fueland air to mix and then compressing it toaid in combustion. The pistons areconnected to the crankshaft by aconnecting rod. The crankshaft translatesthe up and down movement of thepistons into the rotational motion thatmoves the car. On the crankshaft there isa gear that attaches to the camshaft. Thecamshaft controls the intake and exhaustvalves [4]. The camshaft has egg shapedstructures on them (cams) that push thevalves open and closed, allowing thefuel to enter the cylinder and expellingthe products of combustion after ignition(See Figure 2).
 
 
Figure 2. The camshaft opens and closes thevalves on an engine [12].
The ECU controls the processesof the engine. It first sends signals to theinjectors controlling the amount of fuelgoing into the cylinder by indicatinghow long the injectors should stay open.The injectors spray the fuel drops intothe cylinder. There are many differentsized injectors for use with differentengines. It is important to have injectorsthat are the correct size for the enginebeing used. If injectors are too large ortoo small the car will not perform atmaximum efficiency [6].The ECU also sends a signal tothe spark coil so that it sparks at exactlythe right time to ignite the fuel (whencompression within the cylinder isgreatest). The spark coil generates the35,000 volts needed for the spark toinitiate combustion from the 12 voltbattery [7]. The spark coil is a transistorso it amplifies the voltage, causing thespark in the spark plugs, which in turnignite the fuel-air mixture.
2.2 The Four-Stroke CombustionCycle
Most automobile engines todayoperate using a four-stoke combustioncycle. A four-stroke engine goes throughfour distinct stages. The first stage isintake. In this stage the piston movesdown, and the intake valve opensallowing the air/fuel mixture that wascombined by fuel injection to be pushedthough the intake valve into thecylinder. The next step is compression.In this stage the piston moves up causingthe mixture that was just sprayed into thechamber to be compressed. Before topdead center is reached, the spark pluggoes off. The third stage of the 4 stagecycle is combustion (or power). Theair/fuel mixture ignites and the piston isforced down. For ideal torque (for themost power) the combustion should becompleted when the crankshaft is 90degrees beyond top dead center. Thelast step is exhaust. In this stage thepiston is moving up and pushing out theproducts of the combustion reaction outof the car through the exhaust pipe. Thecycle then starts over again [6].
Figure 2. The Four-Stroke Combustion Cycle[11].

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