will determine how well the engine runsand ultimately how well the carperforms.Today’s automotive engines usecomputer controlled systems to regulatefuel injection, allowing for precisemixing of fuel and air. This results inoptimum engine performance, better fueleconomy, and lower exhaust emissions.In this project, we designed, tested, andrefined an engine fuel map utilizingcomputer controlled systems, andmodified the engine in accordance withour findings in order to achieveimproved engine performance. Weworked with the Rutgers FormulaRacing Team and their formula stylerace car in order to maximize thehorsepower of their engine, utilizing theTec-GT software and dyno.
2. Background Information
A car engine is a machine whosebasic purpose is to convert fuel intomotion. An internal combustion engineaccomplishes this conversion byisolating a small amount of fuel in acontained space and igniting it,converting it to an expanding gas thatreleases energy. That energy getstranslated into motion by the manydifferent parts of the engine workingtogether in a precise and continuouscycle of activity . Understanding thevarious parts of the engine and how theywork together is an important first stepin being able to improve the efficiencyand performance of the engine.
2.1 Parts of the Engine and WhatThey Do
Some of the most important partsof modern automobile engines includethe pistons, the crankshaft, the camshaft,the engine control unit (ECU), theinjectors, the spark coil, the spark plugsand the valves (See Figure 1).
Figure 1. Some of the Parts of a Four StrokePiston Engine(E) Exhaust camshaft, (I) Intake camshaft, (S)Spark plug, (V) Valves, (P) Piston, (R)Connecting rod, (C) Crankshaft, (W) Water jacket for coolant flow .
Inside the main body of theengine (the engine block) are cylinders.Modern cars have engines that havefour, six or eight cylinders. Inside eachcylinder is a piston that moves up anddown. When fuel is injected into thecylinder, the movement of the pistoncontrols the volume of air within thecylinder, providing space for the fueland air to mix and then compressing it toaid in combustion. The pistons areconnected to the crankshaft by aconnecting rod. The crankshaft translatesthe up and down movement of thepistons into the rotational motion thatmoves the car. On the crankshaft there isa gear that attaches to the camshaft. Thecamshaft controls the intake and exhaustvalves . The camshaft has egg shapedstructures on them (cams) that push thevalves open and closed, allowing thefuel to enter the cylinder and expellingthe products of combustion after ignition(See Figure 2).