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Steam Engineering Tutorials Book

Steam Engineering Tutorials Book

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Published by Keval Solanki

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Keval Solanki on Feb 01, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/03/2013

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Steam Engineering Tutorials
These tutorials explain the principles of steam engineering and heat transfer. They also provide a comprehensiveengineering best practice guide covering all aspects of steam and condensate systems; from the boiler house andsteam distribution system up to the point of use; through the condensate recovery system and returning to the boiler.Virtually all major applications and products are discussed.1.Introduction 2.Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer  
 
3.The Boiler House 4.Flowmetering 
 
5.Basic Control Theory 
 
6.Control Hardware: Electric/Pneumatic Actuation 7.Control Hardware: Self-acting Actuation 
 
8.Control Applications 
 
9.Safety Valves 
 
10.Steam Distribution 11.Steam Traps and Steam Trapping 
 
12.Pipeline Ancillaries 
 
13.Condensate Removal 14.Condensate Recovery 
 
15.Desuperheating 
 
16.Equations 
 
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1.Introduction 
The introduction of steam as a useful and powerful purveyor of energy. It discusses the versatile uses and benefits of this ubiquitous vapour; and the ways in which it is produced and distributed to achieve maximum performance andeconomy for the end user.1.Steam - The Energy Fluid 
 
It is useful to introduce the topic of steam by considering its many uses and benefits, before entering an overview of the steam plant or any technical explanations.Steam has come a long way from its traditional associations with locomotives and the Industrial Revolution. Steamtoday is an integral and essential part of modern technology. Without it, our food, textile, chemical, medical, power,heating and transport industries could not exist or perform as they do.Steam provides a means of transporting controllable amounts of energy from a central, automated boiler house,where it can be efficiently and economically generated, to the point of use. Therefore as steam moves around a plantit can equally be considered to be the transport and provision of energy.For many reasons, steam is one of the most widely used commodities for conveying heat energy. Its use is popular throughout industry for a broad range of tasks from mechanical power production to space heating and processapplications.
 
F
ig. 1.1.1An 18th century steam engine.Photography courtesy of Kew Bridge Steam Museum, London
 
F
ig. 1.1.2A modern packaged steam heat exchange systemused for producing hot water 
 Top 
 
Steam is efficient and economic to generate
Water is plentiful and inexpensive. It is non-hazardous to health and environmentally sound. In its gaseous form, it isa safe and efficient energy carrier. Steam can hold five or six times as much potential energy as an equivalent massof water.When water is heated in a boiler, it begins to absorb energy. Depending on the pressure in the boiler, the water willevaporate at a certain temperature to form steam. The steam contains a large quantity of stored energy which willeventually be transferred to the process or the space to be heated.
 
It can be generated at high pressures to give high steam temperatures. The higher the pressure, the higher thetemperature. More heat energy is contained within high temperature steam so its potential to do work is greater.
F
ig. 1.1.3
 
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Modern shell boilers are compact and efficient in their design, using multiple passes and efficient burner technology to transfer a very high proportion of the energy contained in the fuel to the water, with minimumemissions.
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The boiler fuel may be chosen from a variety of options, including combustible waste, which makes thesteam boiler an environmentally sound option amongst the choices available for providing heat. Centralisedboiler plant can take advantage of low interruptible gas tariffs, because any suitable standby fuel can bestored for use when the gas supply is interrupted.
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Highly effective heat recovery systems can virtually eliminate blowdown costs, return valuable condensate tothe boiler house and add to the overall efficiency of the steam and condensate loop.The increasing popularity of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems demonstrates the high regard for steamsystems in today's environment and energy-conscious industries.Top 
 
Steam can easily and cost effectively be distributed to the point of use
Steam is one of the most widely used media to convey heat over distances. Because steam flows in response to thepressure drop along the line, expensive circulating pumps are not needed.Due to the high heat content of steam, only relatively small bore pipework is required to distribute the steam at highpressure. The pressure is then reduced at the point of use, if necessary. This arrangement makes installation easier and less expensive than for some other heat transfer fluids.Overall, the lower capital and running costs of steam generation, distribution and condensate return systems meanthat many users choose to install new steam systems in preference to other energy media, such as gas fired, hotwater, electric and thermal oil systems.

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