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Network Operating Systems (File)

Network Operating Systems (File)

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Published by Cutie
Network Operating Systems For Information Technology Engineering - PTU(File)
Network Operating Systems For Information Technology Engineering - PTU(File)

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Published by: Cutie on Feb 01, 2011
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 NETWORK OPERATINGSYSTEM
OPERATING SYSTEMOPERATING SYSTEM
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer  and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. An operating systemand provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. An operating system  processes system data and user input, and responds by allocating and managing tasks and internal processes system data and user input, and responds by allocating and managing tasks and internal system resources as a service to users and programs of the system. At the foundation of allsystem resources as a service to users and programs of the system. At the foundation of all system software, an operating system performs basic tasks such as controlling and allocatingsystem software, an operating system performs basic tasks such as controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and output devices, facilitating Computer memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and output devices, facilitating Computer  networking and managing files. Most operating systems come with an application that providesnetworking and managing files. Most operating systems come with an application that provides an interface for managing the operating system. The operating system forms a platform for other an interface for managing the operating system. The operating system forms a platform for other  software.software.When the computer is turned on, a small "boot program" loads the operating system. AlthoughWhen the computer is turned on, a small "boot program" loads the operating system. Although additional modules may be loaded as needed, the main part, known as the "kernel" resides inadditional modules may be loaded as needed, the main part, known as the "kernel" resides in memory at all times.memory at all times.The operating system (OS) sets the standards for all application programs that run in theThe operating system (OS) sets the standards for all application programs that run in the computer. Applications "talk to" the operating system for all user interface and file managementcomputer. Applications "talk to" the operating system for all user interface and file management operations.operations.Also called an "executive" or "supervisor," an operating system performs the following functions:Also called an "executive" or "supervisor," an operating system performs the following functions:
 
 NETWORK OPERATINGSYSTEM
User InterfaceUser Interface
: All graphics based today, the user interface includes the windows, menus: All graphics based today, the user interface includes the windows, menus and method of interaction between you and the computer. Prior to graphical user interfacesand method of interaction between you and the computer. Prior to graphical user interfaces (GUIs), all operation of the computer was performed by typing in commands. Not at all(GUIs), all operation of the computer was performed by typing in commands. Not at all extinct, command-line interfaces are alive and well and provide an alternate way of runningextinct, command-line interfaces are alive and well and provide an alternate way of running  programs on all major operating systems. programs on all major operating systems.
Job ManagementJob Management
: Job management controls the order and time in which programs are run: Job management controls the order and time in which programs are run and is more sophisticated in the mainframe environment where scheduling the daily work hasand is more sophisticated in the mainframe environment where scheduling the daily work has always been routine. IBM's job control language (JCL) was developed decades ago. In aalways been routine. IBM's job control language (JCL) was developed decades ago. In a desktop environment, batch files can be written to perform a sequence of operations that candesktop environment, batch files can be written to perform a sequence of operations that can  be scheduled to start at a given time. be scheduled to start at a given time.
Task ManagementTask Management
: Multitasking, which is the ability to simultaneously execute multiple: Multitasking, which is the ability to simultaneously execute multiple  programs, is available in all operating systems today. Critical in the mainframe and server  programs, is available in all operating systems today. Critical in the mainframe and server  environment, applications can be prioritized to run faster or slower depending on their environment, applications can be prioritized to run faster or slower depending on their   purpose. In the desktop world, multitasking is necessary for keeping several applications open purpose. In the desktop world, multitasking is necessary for keeping several applications open at the same time so you can bounce back and forth among them. See multitasking.at the same time so you can bounce back and forth among them. See multitasking.
Data ManagementData Management
: Data management keeps track of the data on disk, tape and optical: Data management keeps track of the data on disk, tape and optical storage devices. The application program deals with data by file name and a particular storage devices. The application program deals with data by file name and a particular  location within the file. The operating system's file system knows where that data arelocation within the file. The operating system's file system knows where that data are  physically stored (which sectors on disk) and interaction between the application and physically stored (which sectors on disk) and interaction between the application and operating system is through the programming interface. Whenever an application needs tooperating system is through the programming interface. Whenever an application needs to read or write data, it makes a call to the operating system (see API).read or write data, it makes a call to the operating system (see API).
Device ManagementDevice Management
: Device management controls peripheral devices by sending them: Device management controls peripheral devices by sending them commands in their own proprietary language. The software routine that knows how to dealcommands in their own proprietary language. The software routine that knows how to deal with each device is called a "driver," and the OS requires drivers for the peripherals attachedwith each device is called a "driver," and the OS requires drivers for the peripherals attached to the computer. When a new peripheral is added, that device's driver is installed into theto the computer. When a new peripheral is added, that device's driver is installed into the operating system. See driver.operating system. See driver.
Security:Security:
Operating systems provide password protection to keep unauthorized users out of Operating systems provide password protection to keep unauthorized users out of  the system. Some operating systems also maintain activity logs and accounting of the user'sthe system. Some operating systems also maintain activity logs and accounting of the user's time for billing purposes. They also provide backup and recovery routines for starting over intime for billing purposes. They also provide backup and recovery routines for starting over in the event of a system failure.the event of a system failure.
 
 
 NETWORK OPERATINGSYSTEM
DESKTOP OPERATING SYSTEMSDESKTOP OPERATING SYSTEMS
The operating system develops the system information and the entry of user and acts in responseThe operating system develops the system information and the entry of user and acts in response  by assigning and organizing the jobs and interior system resources as the service to the users and by assigning and organizing the jobs and interior system resources as the service to the users and the programs of the system.the programs of the system.At the base of the entire system software, the operating system carries out the basic jobs likeAt the base of the entire system software, the operating system carries out the basic jobs like controlling and giving priority to the system requirements, assigning the memory, making easy incontrolling and giving priority to the system requirements, assigning the memory, making easy in networking calculating input and output equipments, and organizing file systems.networking calculating input and output equipments, and organizing file systems.
Features of Desktop operating systems:Features of Desktop
 
operating systems:
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACESGRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES
Presently the contemporary desktop operating systems include Graphical User Interfaces. A fewPresently the contemporary desktop operating systems include Graphical User Interfaces. A few older desktop operating systems firmly incorporated the GUI into the kernel.older desktop operating systems firmly incorporated the GUI into the kernel.
 For example: For example:
In the unique implementations of Microsoft Windows and Mac OS, the graphical subsystem wasIn the unique implementations of Microsoft Windows and Mac OS, the graphical subsystem was in fact part of the kernel. Many operating systems permit the user to install or generate any user in fact part of the kernel. Many operating systems permit the user to install or generate any user  line they desire. The X Window System in conjunction with GNOME or KDE is a frequentlyline they desire. The X Window System in conjunction with GNOME or KDE is a frequently found setup on most UNIX and Unix-like BSD, Linux, Minix systems. Graphical user linesfound setup on most UNIX and Unix-like BSD, Linux, Minix systems. Graphical user lines develop over time. Windows has customized its user lines almost every time a new major versiondevelop over time. Windows has customized its user lines almost every time a new major version of Windows is released, and the Mac OS GUI changed dramatically with the opening of Mac OSof Windows is released, and the Mac OS GUI changed dramatically with the opening of Mac OS X in 2001.X in 2001.
DEVICE DRIVERSDEVICE DRIVERS
A device driver is a precise type of computer software developed to permit interaction withA device driver is a precise type of computer software developed to permit interaction with hardware devices. Characteristically this constitutes an interface for communicating with thehardware devices. Characteristically this constitutes an interface for communicating with the 

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