you add soap to some oil-and-vinegar salad dressing. Thevinegar layer of the dressing gets cloudy because the soap hassurrounded little droplets of oil and prevents them from rejoiningthe oil layer.
HOW ARE COLLOIDS PREPARED?
There are actually two ways of making a given substance disperse to colloidal size –by means of dispersion or condensation.
is the breaking of large pieces intocolloidal particle size. On the other hand,
involves tiny particles (molecules,ions, or atoms) clumping together to form clusters.Several processes make use of the principle of dispersion in making colloids. For example, grinding using a colloid mill is used in the preparation of paint pigments or facepowder. Also, the process of beating, stirring and whipping in preparing mayonnaise or creams is a form of dispersion. You may also use chemicals to break down big particles.For example, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used to break up clay, glue, starch and gelatinpeptized in water. The process is known as
.On the other hand, condensation is involved in the preparation of carbon black byburning methane in limited air and collecting the soot or carbon atoms on cool surfaces.Carbon black is used as filler for rubber tires and in dispersions such as printer’s ink andIndian ink. Condensation is also involved in formation of clouds, fog and mist.The oil and the vinegar (water) mixed much better when the egg yolk was added.The lecithin, which is a protein in the egg yolk, acts as an
Emulsifyingagents have regions that associate with the oil and regions that associate with the vinegar (water). Thus the
(the egg yolk) acts as a bridge between the oil and water. Themayonnaise created is an
of oil droplets in water.If colloids are made, they can also be broken for certain purposes. There are severalways of breaking colloids. These include applying heat, adding a reactant or chemical, or passing an electric current through it.
1. APPLYING HEAT
Have you tried cooking egg for breakfast? An egg white is a colloidal protein. Theparticles of an egg clump together because of the heat applied while the egg is beingcooked. This is one way of breaking colloids. Another application of heat in breakingcolloids is by
. This involves slow application of heat causing the colloidalparticles to get bigger which is used to prepare precipitates for filtration in the laboratory.
2. ADDING A REACTANT OR CHEMICAL
Have you heard of “
”? Rain is made by seeding the clouds with solidcarbon dioxide (dry ice) or with silver iodide crystals. These “seeds” provide nuclei on whichwater vapor condenses.For a clearer visibility of the runways during rainy season, airport fog is removed byusing salt or dry ice.