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6th Grade English / Language Arts CRCT Review

6th Grade English / Language Arts CRCT Review

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CRCT REVIEWELA 6th GRADE-2010-2011GRAMMAR/SENTENCE CONSTRUCTIONWeighted 60%ON CRCTAnalyzing Sentences
Okay let’s start at the beginning with sentences. All sentences are made from using the eight parts of speech (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, interjections) To make a sentence you must have aminimum of a subject (noun or pronoun) and a predicate (verb).
The boy slept
. This is a sentence-not a very meaningful one, but nevertheless a sentence by definition. No matter how complicated the sentence gets, you can always find the subject by asking
what or whom
the sentence is about.By the way this is a
simple sentence
-one subject and verb. The way I remember a
simple sentence
is that it has noconjunctions (
and, but, because or 
+ another phrase/clause after it)
Mary and her mom slept through the night.
This is
 still 
a
simple sentence
even though there is a
compound subject.
You can also have a
simple sentence
witha
compound predicate
(verb): Mom
ironed and hung 
up the clothes.
Even though it was raining last night, I slept well.
Who is the sentence about?
I
. What did
I
do?
Slept
. If you ask these two questions you can always figure out the subject and verb/predicate of a sentence. Notice that the
completesubject
has been underlined once and the
complete predicate
has not been underlined. It’s easy to remember howto do this, because every word before the subject is considered the
complete subject
and the verb and everythingafter it is the
complete predicate.
This, by the way, is an example of a
complex sentence
. One part of it can standalone, if it is separated from the main part and the other cannot.
I slept well
is the part that would still be a sentence.
Even though it was raining last night
would be a
sentence fragment
or an incomplete thought 
.
I slept well last night and I enjoyed going to work the next day.
 Now I have made this into a
compoundsentence
, because if I remove the conjunction
and,
both the phrases can stand alone as sentences.
Hey, what kind of sentence is this? I saw Rick last night and he said that you said that I was a fat slob I don’tappreciate you saying that about me so just stop it. It is a
run on,
 because it just keeps running on and on withoutany punctuation. Remember punctuation tells the reader when one thought ends and another one begins. Could youfix it? Sure you could. I saw Rick last night and he said that you said that I was a fat slob! I don’t appreciate yousaying this about me. So just stop it.Sometimes those old tricky CRCT people will ask you to locate a subject of a sentence. Then they give you a stupidsentence where they have
inverted
the subject and place it after the verb or they will put so many modifiers in frontof the subject, that you mess up. For instance what is the subject of this sentence? Here is the car of mygrandparents. (S=car) Do these clothes interest you? (S=clothes). Down the road, the fat, old woman traveled.(S=woman) Watch out for their tricks!
Parts of Speech
Think of the parts of speech like parts of your body. Different parts of your body have different functions right?Well the eight parts of speech operate much the same way. Your head always functions like a head. I mean your armcould never be a head right? Well
unfortunately
parts of speech
can function as other parts of speech dependingon
 
how
 
they are used in a sentence
. Are you ready to scream yet?
Nouns
are words that name people (mom), places (forest), things (desk) or ideas (liberty, freedom, happiness).
Common nouns
(nouns that name
 general 
things-school, canyon, city).
Proper nouns
(nouns that name
 specific
things-Kennedy Road Middle School, Grand Canyon, Griffin) Didyou notice that all proper nouns begin with
 
capital letters
? *
This is particularly important that you remember this on the test because capitalization is one of the areas of emphasis!
A
collective noun
names a group of people, animals or things (team, band, crowd, and congregation).Collective nouns are a little bit tricky because they can be followed by a singular or a plural verb
depending onthe meaning.
You use the singular form of the verb if the members in the group
act as a single unit
. The team
 shares
the field with its opponent.You use the plural form of the verb if the members of the collective noun
act separately
. The team
 share
their  jokes with one another. (Yeah, I know, it still doesn’t sound correct.)*The only reason I mention this is becauseof that subject-verb agreement stuff that will be on the CRCT.1
 
Verbs
tell what the subject of a sentence is doing. .
Action verbs
-verbs that express a physical action: lift, hit, swallow
Linking verbs
- verbs that do not express an action. They tell about a state of being: is, be, are, seems, was,looked, tasted, felt, appeared, became. Here are some examples. She
became
a fine lady. He
is
cute. The food
tasted 
funny. But if I say: I
tasted 
the food-guess what-
tasted 
is now an action verb. (Boy do I hate all theserules and exceptions to the rules!)
Helping verbs -
are just that-they help out the main verb. (has, have, will) We
have
eaten
 
here before. By theway
have eaten
is called a
verb phrase
(any time you have more than one verb, it’s called a
 phrase
.Often you will be asked to read a passage and locate the sentence with the error. What is wrong in this sentence?The boys is going to the park. (The subject is plural and needs the plural form of the verb
is
, which is
are)
Neither of the athletes (practices, practice) after dinner. The correct choice is practice. It seems like it would be just theopposite. The plural form of a word ends with an “s”, so why isn’t the correct verb choice the one that ends with an“s”? That’s our English language-maddening. Try a few more. (Has, Have) you seen that new movie with Denzel?(Have) The instructors (teaches, teach) the importance of friendship.Verbs can have
forms: present, past and past participle
.
Regular verbs are easy:
Help (present), helped (past- just added –ed), have helped (past participle)
Irregular verbs are tricky:
 begin (present), began (past), have begun(past participle) hit (present), hit (past-stayed the same), have hit (past participle) or swim (present) swam (past),have swum (past participle)
.
I (play, played) on the field yesterday. Why is played the correct form? (Because youdid the action in the past.) I (cut, cutted, have cutted) my finger yesterday. Cut is always the correct form, because itis one of those irregular fellows.Verbs also have
tenses.
This shows the time of an action or the time of the state of being:
present tense
(play),
pasttense
(played),
future tense
(shall play, will play).
Pronouns
are words that take the place of nouns.
*Personal -
I, she, it, you, we, they, me, us, him, her, them-- Could you use them correctly in a sentence?(He, Him) and I went to the movies. “He” is the correct choice because it is the
nominative form
 
of this personal pronoun. What about this sentence? He went with (I, me) to the store. “Me” is the right choice because it is the
objective form
of this personal pronoun.
Possessive -
his, her, our, their, your, its, whose, mine (notice that “its” has no apostrophe)
Demonstrative
-these, those, this, that
Indefinite -
anybody, some, everybody, each, all, somebody
Some
of us are going to the pep rally. (indefinite)
BUT
I want
some
candy (some now becomes an adjective, because it tells how much). You see how tricky the parts of speech can be. It just depends on
how 
they are beingused in the sentence.
Interrogative
-who, what, whose, whom, whichDid you notice that
whose
can also a possessive pronoun? Again,
the word’s function
in the sentence determines its part of speech.Whose is this? (interrogative pronoun)Whose car is this? (possessive pronoun)
Adjectives
are words that describe or modify NOUNS or PRONOUNS.
Can tell what kind-blue, silly, stupid, crazy
Can tell how many-one, ten, some, each
 Each
piece of candy was delicious. (adjective describing the noun,
 piece
).
 Each
of us went. (indefinite pronoun, which is the subject for this sentence)
Can tell which one-this, that that, these, those-Wait a minute these can also be pronouns. You’re not crazy; it just depends on
how
they are being used.
This
book is mine. (adjective, because it describes which book)
This
ismine. (pronoun-functions as subject of sentence)
Articles-the, a, anA
Conjunction
is a word that connects words or groups of words.
Coordinating conjunctions -
(just think about how you coordinate your clothing) connect things that arerelated. The most common ones are
and, but, or 
*Correlative conjunctions -
are conjunctions used in pairs. The most common ones areEitherornot onlybut alsobothand Neither…norwhether….or 2
 
 Both
men
and 
women can vote. (Oops both can also be an indefinite pronoun or an adjective. Take
both
piecesof candy-adjective because it tells how much candy. Both of us went. (pronoun because it functions like thesubject.)
 Neither 
rain
nor 
snow will stop the mailman.
*
Subordinating Conjunctions -
conjunctions that join two sentences that express relationships of 
time or cause.
The most common ones: because, after, before, unless, until, if The Civil War began
because
the North and South had many differences in lifestyles. You can go to lunch,
if 
you are finished with your work.An
Interjection
is a single word or short group of words that is used to express a feeling or an emotion. It
is usually
followed by an exclamation point “!”,
but 
not always
.
 Let’s go!
We can’t rest until we get there.
Whew!
I am so tired.
Oh
, look at that beautiful sky.
Adverbs
can describe or 
modify
a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
Can tell how-carefully, quickly, sadly, stupidly
Can tell when-sometimes, once, now, finally
Can tell where-inside, underground, above, here, there
Can tell to what extent-fully, very, quite, extremely
 Finally
, the door opened
 slowly
.Both these adverbs (
 finally and slowly
) make the meaning of the verb
opened 
clearer.
Big, big, big hint-adverbs usually (but not always) end in –ly.
A
Preposition
is a word that links another word or word group to the rest of the sentence. Most common: to, on, in,of, by, at, out, across between. There are tons of them. I went
to
the store
across
town. Prepositions usually havenouns or pronouns as objects.
OBJECTS-Are always nouns or pronouns
Objects of verbs
are words that complete the meaning of a sentence. Justin saw
 Keith (direct object).
Direct Objects
-
 
The word that receives the
action
of a verb is called the direct object of a verb. Inthe sentence above,
 Keith
receives the action of saw; therefore it is the direct object. Did you know thatdirect objects are always nouns or pronouns?
Indirect Objects -
Some words tell
to whom
or 
 for whom
something is done. These words areindirect objects of the verb. Mrs. Sorensen gave
me
a good grade.
Gave
is the verb. What did I give?
 grade
(direct object). To whom did I give it?
me ( 
indirect object). Watch out for tricks like this: Mrs.Sorensen gave a good grade to me.
Gave
is still the verb and
 grade
is still the direct object; however,there is no longer an indirect object. There
is
now an
object of the preposition
to
.
Somebody help me!
Object of the preposition-
the noun or pronoun after the preposition is called the object of the preposition. One
of the
children
 
got lost
on the
trip
.
The word
 
children
 
 –is
 
the object of the preposition
of;
trip
is the object of the preposition
on.
Predicate Words-
don’t get fooled by linking verbs! If you have a sentence like. Mike is
nice.
 
 Nice
is not adirect object, or an indirect object or an object of the preposition. It is simply described as a
predicate word
 because it is in the predicate part of the sentence and
links
back to the subject. (It happens to be a predicateadjective! You can also have a
predicate noun/nominative
: Mike is the
 president 
of the class. President isanother noun linking back to Mike.)
ADEQUATE SENTENCE COMBINATION AND REVISION
A paper containing sentences of one short pattern bores both the writer and the reader for two reasons:1.Repetition of a single, simple sentence pattern draws attention to itself, not to the ideas in the paper.2.Simple, short sentences cannot show the reader the many relationships that exist among ideas of differentimportance.If you read through a paper you've written and notice that you've written sentences in a single, short pattern, ask yourself the following questions. Your answers can help you revise the sentences to express your ideas more clearlyand to add variety to your paper.
Do adjacent sentences contain the same subject and/or the same verb?
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