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Published by: antoniodemora on Feb 02, 2011
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The end of the World War II
During the war, there were some conferences where the leaders planned and organized thefuture of the world once the war was finished:In December 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin met in
, Iran planed the finalstrategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, and set date forOperationOverlord(invasion of Normandy)In
Bretton Woods
, USA (July 1944) Representatives of 44 nations establishedInternational Monetary FundandInternational Bank for Reconstruction andDevelopment
(USSR)February 1945, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin: final plans for defeat of Germany and postwar Europe plans.The 
 Conference took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in 
, California.At this convention, delegates from 50 countries signed the foundational treaty of the United Nations.On 11 July, the Allied leaders met in
, Germany. They confirmed earlieragreements about Germany, and reiterated the demand for unconditional surrenderof all Japanese forces. When Japan continued to reject the Potsdam terms, the UnitedStates dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki inearly August. On 15 August 1945 Japan surrendered, on the deck of the Americanbattleship Missouri on 2 September 1945, ending the war.
Economic consequences:
The global economy suffered heavily from the war, although WWII participants wereaffected differently. Recovery was sped up by the liberalization of European economicpolicy that the 
1951) both directly and indirectly caused.The post 1948 West German recovery has been called the 
. Also the Italian and French economies rebounded.By contrast, the
United Kingdom
was in a state of economic
, and continued relativeeconomic decline for decades.The Soviet Union, despite enormous human and material losses, also experienced rapidincrease in production in the immediate post-war era.Japan experiencedincredibly rapideconomic growth, becoming one of the most powerfuleconomies in the world by the 1980s.China returned to its pre-war industrial production by 1952.
Political consequences:
Austria became a neutral state
, non-aligned with any political bloc.
onto westernand eastern occupation zonescontrolled by the Western Allies andthe USSR. The alliance between theWestern Allies and the Soviet Unionhad begun to deteriorate even beforethe war was over, Germany had beende facto divided, and two independentstates,Federal Republic of GermanyandGerman Democratic Republicwerecreated within the borders of Alliedand Soviet occupation zones,accordingly.In an effort to maintain peace, theAllies formed the
United Nations
,which officially came into existence onOctober 1945, and adopted TheUniversal Declaration of Human Rightsin 1948.Most eastern and central European countries fell into the
Soviet sphere
, which led toestablishment of Communist led regimes, with full or partial support of the Sovietoccupation authorities. As a result, 
, andEast GermanybecameSoviet Satellitestates. Communist
 conducted a fully independent policy causing tension with theUSSR.The long period of political tensions and military competition between them, the
,would be accompanied by unprecedented arms race and proxy wars. Post-wardivision of the world was formalized by two international military alliances, the UnitedStates-led 
 and the Soviet-led 
. In Asia, the United Statesoccupied Japanand administrated Japan's former islands.Koreawasdivided and occupied bythe US in the South and the Soviet Union in the North between 1945 and 1948. Separate republics emerged on both sides of the 38th parallel in1948, each claiming to be the legitimate government for all of Korea, which led ultimatelyto theKorean War. In China, nationalist and communist forces resumed thecivil warin June 1946. Communistforces were victorious and established the
,while nationalistforces retreated toTaiwanin 1949.In theMiddle East,the Arab rejection of theUnited Nations Partition Plan for Palestineand thecreation of Israelmarked the escalation of the 
. While the European colonial powers attempted to retain some or all of theircolonialempires,their losses of prestige and resources during the war rendered this unsuccessful,leading to 
Human consequences
60 million people
died in the war, including about 
40million civilians
. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war, almosthalf of all World War II deaths.The
were responsible for the
, the killing of approximately six millionJews (overwhelminglyAshkenazim), as well as two millionethnic Polesand four million others who were deemed"unworthy of life" (including thedisabledandmentally ill,  Soviet prisoners,homosexuals,Freemasons,Jehovah's Witnesses,andRomani)as part of a programme of deliberate extermination.Between 3 million to more than 10 million civilians, mostly Chinese, were killed
by theJapanese
occupation forces.While many of the Axis's actswere brought to trialin the world's first internationaltribunals,incidents caused
 were not: the mass-bombing of civilian areasin enemy territory, includingTokyoand most notably the German cities of Dresden,  Hamburg,andCologneby Western Allies, which resulted in the destruction of more than 160 cities and killing a total of more than 600,000 German civilians might beconsidered war crimes.The
gulags(labour camps)led to the death (about 4 million people) of citizensof occupied countries such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as Germanprisoners of war(POWs) and even Soviet citizens who had been or were thought to besupporters of the Nazis.

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