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Alberunis India

Alberunis India

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Published by Sudhir Srinivasan
The India of Alberuni gives us a rare insight to the habits, customs, and beliefs of Hindu India as a the writer saw it in 1030 A.D.
The India of Alberuni gives us a rare insight to the habits, customs, and beliefs of Hindu India as a the writer saw it in 1030 A.D.

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Published by: Sudhir Srinivasan on Feb 03, 2011
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01/28/2013

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Proof of 18 January 2001
Alberuni’s India
WARNING: THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED LAY-OUT.Problems in printing
1. Arabic not yet supported, an automatic ad-hoc transcription in brackets is used.2. Tables can come out far too wide.3. Marginal notes are printed in the text, in a smaller type in brackets.4. Vulgar fractions appear as a division.5. The material has not yet been proof read!
TEI header
Alberuni’s India Abu Al-Rahain Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Alberuni, 973?–1048 Edward C. Sachau, 1845–1930(Translator and Editor) 2 vols. (50 + 408 + 431 p = 889 p) 1910, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd.,LondonCopyright status: U.S. Expired. E.U. Expired 1 Jan 1981, revived 1995, will expire again 1 Jan 2001. BerneConv. Expired 1 Jan 1981.Approximate size: 1.6 MegabyteIntroduction to the electronic editionThe Indika of Alberuni gives us a rare insight to the habits, customs, and beliefs of Hindu India as a thewriter saw it in 1030 A.D.An electronic edition of this work offers a lot of benefits. First of all, it enables fast searching through thetext, and quickly jumping to notes and the sources of quoted texts (when these become available in electronicformat). Second, it can be distributed at a much lower cost than the printed version, which, although stillsometimes reprinted in India, can be quite difficult to obtain.A further benefit, for modern readers, is that the numerous Arabic and Greek quotations can be automaticallytransliterated, using a single toggle on the reading software, and that imperial units of measurement can beconverted to their metric equivalents with the same ease.ProductionThe electronic edition of Sachau’s translation of Alberuni’s Indica poses several challenges to the encoder.First of all, the large size of the work and the large number of diacritics make it difficult to process the workon ordinary word processers. The fragments in Greek, Arabic, Syriac, and Hebrew script, the large numberof complicated tables, as well as the occasional mathematical formula further complicate this task.The main body of the text was scanned, and converted to a computer readable format using Omnipage 8.0on a Macintosh computer. Using the proofread feature of the software, the text was corrected, accentedwords and the occasional word in a foreign script entered with special tags. The tables (of which no currentOCR software can make any sense) were entered by hand in a simple word processor. The larger Greekquotations and Arabic fragments were also typed that way.After this primary stage, the entire file, about 1.6 megabytes large, was further processed in word on botha Mac and a PC, adding TEI tags to it, and correcting a large number of mistakes introduced by the OCRprocess.After processing the file, it is converted to an ASCII file, and, using a set of custom macros in TeX, ahard-print copy was made for proofreading. After this, all corrections have been entered into the file. Whereerrors in the source text are encountered, they have been tagged with
<
corr
>
tags, such that the orginaltext can always be reconstructed if so desired.In further stages, the following additions can be made:
linking cross references
linking notes with the pages they refer to, and vice versa.
tagging languages
tagging measures with their metric equivalent
tagging dates with their Gregorian equivalent
tagging names with their normalised formSpecial characters usedThe various incarnations of apostrophe:
Apostrophe
1
 
Proof of 18 January 2001
Alberuni’s India
Alif, looks like apostrophe, in Arabic transcriptionAyn, looks like left single quote, in Arabic transcription.
prime
prime

double prime

triple prime
Accented letters:
´s s with acute´S S with acute˙m m with dot above˙M M with dot above˙n n with dot above˙N N with dot aboveH.H with dot belowh.h with dot belowk.k with dot belowK.K with dot belowm.m with dot belowM.M with dot belown.n with dot belowN.N with dot belowr.r with dot belowR.R with dot belows.s with dot belowS.S with dot belowt.t with dot belowT.T with dot below˜u u with tilde
Entities for common abbreviations (note that at the end of a sentence, they include the sentence endingdot):A.D. A.D. in small caps A.H. A.H. in small caps P.M. P.M. in small caps A.M. A.M. in small caps... TeX encoded mathematical formulas.
raised circle, for degrees. prime, for minutes double prime, for seconds

triple prime, used for subdivisionof seconds. long syllable, indicated by less than sign
<
short syllable, indicated by standing bar — theHindu syllable Om.superior i superior ii superior iii superior iv
|
Metrical symbol for short syllable (looks like —)
<
Metrical symbol for long syllable (looks like
<
)
×
The times symbol (diagonal cross) +
-Special elements
[...]
marginal head or note. will become
1
manuscript page number will become .../... vulgar fraction.
p. ###
TablesThe tables are mostly hand typed, as scanning them is very difficult. Tables are sometimes set rotated 90degrees, and sometimes in two columns. Tables in two colums are entered as if they were set in one column.special attributes usedtable rot rotation in degrees, default 0 cols number of columns rows number of rowstemplateRow headRowrowcell span cols horizontal span; the number of columns a cell occupies. vspan rows vertical span; the numberof rows a cell occupies.BibliographyBooks cited are tagged Title an author of book as it appears in text.
1
...
2
 
Proof of 18 January 2001
Alberuni’s IndiaCross Referencespages are tagged with
<
pb
>
tags. They will have the an ID derived from their page number:
<
pb n=32id=p32
>
The end notes in the annotations section refer to a page and line in the main text. They are indicated inthe text as:some text
n1
and given as
2
The page numbers given in the notes are useless in the electronic edition, and hence replaced by crossreferences.Greek transcriptionEnclosed in
<
GR
>...<
/GR
>
Greek Roman Roman NotesAlphabet Transcription Transliterationalpha a A abeta b B bgamma g G gdelta d D depsilon e E ezeta z Z zeta h H ˆe looks a bit like ittheta j J th arbitraryiota i I ikappa k K klambda l L lmu m M mnu n N nxi x X ksomicron o O opi p P prho r R rsigma s S s nal sigma ctau t T tupsilon u U uphi f f phchi q Q ch arbitrary)psi y Y ps looks a bit like itomega w W ˆo looks a bit like itgrave accent aacute accent acircumenflex accent =arough breathing
>
a hsmooth breathing
<
adiaeresis aiota subscript a
The accents can be combined, in which case the breathings come first, then the accents, e.g.,
is a Greeklower case alpha with a rough breathing, circumflex accent and iota subscript.apostrophe in Greek context: ’ centered dot in Greek context: ∆TODO:∆ -¿ ; ; -¿ ?Arabic and Persian transcriptionEnclosed in
<
AR
>...<
/AR
>
2
....
3

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