This manual provides the planning and
employment guidance for nuclear weapons in
combat operations against targets on or near
the earth’s surface. It describes operational
doctrine for integrating nuclear fire support into
the concept of operations, for using target
analysis procedures, and for coordinating withsister services and allies.
This manual is one in a series that covers—
Operational doctrine for employing nuclear
•Command responsibilities and staff
procedures for employing nuclear weapons.
Procedures for target analysis.
The effects produced by nuclear bursts.
•Tabular information concerning target
response, troop safety, collateral dam-age, andpreclusion of damage.
FM 101-31-1 provides procedural guidance on
target planning for nuclear weapons. Itcontains the doctrine for nuclear weaponsemployment and the command and staff
actions required to carry out the doctrine. FM
101-31-2 (S-RD) provides classified operational
characteristics of nuclear weapon deliverysystems and nuclear weapons in the US
stockpile. It provides the effects data necessary
for target analysis and items of information
concerning technical procedures not included in
FM 101-31-1 because of security classification. A
modified version containing information
similar in format to that in FM 101-31-2 applies
directly to NATO. To provide unclassifiedtraining for target analysts, FM 101-31-3
supplies unclassified data for a family of hypo
thetical nuclear weapons.
The organization of the material in FMs 101
31-2 and 101-31-3 is identical in most cases. FM
101-31-3 is intended only for initial training orwhen FM 101-31-2 is unavailable. FM 101-31-2should be used in training to the greatest degreepossible so that personnel become familiar with
the effects and capabilities of actual nuclear
FM 101-31-1 is based on the principles of war,
conditions of modern battle, and operational
doctrine as set forth in FM 100-5. It applies to
commanders and their staffs at brigade,
division, and corps and at Air Force tactical
headquarters. FM 101-31-1 applies to the US
Army. FMFM 11-4 applies to the Marine Corps;
AFP 200-31, Volume I, applies to the US Air
Force; NWP 28-0-1 applies to the US Navy.Within this publication, the designation FM101-31-1 represents all four documents. For
guidance on employing nuclear weapons in theair defense role, see FM 44-1A. For employing
atomic demolition munitions, see FM 5-106.
Pertinent Air Force doctrine is contained in
AFM 1-5 (S).
AP-550-1-2-INT provides an alternate means
of calculating weapons radii, required yields,and probabilities of damage for both point and
area installation targets covered under the
vulnerability numbering (VN) systems. The so-
are used for strategic
targeting and by Air Force and Navy planners
for some types of tactical targeting. Because it is
possible to obtain slightly different answers
using methods from AP-550-1-2 INT and FM
101-31-2/AFP 200-31, Volume II, planners from
all services must use common nuclear targeting
methods during joint operations.
The Air Force considers this document as
procedural guidance rather than doctrine. Air
Force doctrine regarding tactical nuclear
operations is contained in AFM 1-5.