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Build a Better Home_Walls

Build a Better Home_Walls

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Published by Ceyanez

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Published by: Ceyanez on Feb 04, 2011
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04/04/2013

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      B     u     i     l     d     a      B     e     t     t     e     r      H     o     m     e
     ®
 wallS
 avoiding MoiSture accuMulation in wallS
 Walls are an integral part of a structure’s weather-resistive system. Details inwall design and construction are important in preventing damaging moisturebuild-up, whether the moisture originates from outside or inside the building.The Build a Better Home (BBH) program from APA is designed to provide build-ers and homeowners with the construction guidelines they need to protect theirhomes against damaging moisture infiltration. Key elements in the buildingenvelope are the roof, walls, and foundation.This publication outlines the two primary sources of moisture in wood wall construction andmethods of preventing its accumulation. Other design factors not covered in this publicationinclude insulation options and other energy considerations and design recommendations forbuildings within flood zones. Check with your local building department for these and otherrequirements specific to your location.
 Window sill with flangePan flashing (or felt sill strip)continuation Wood structural panel sheathingCaulking/sealant with backer rodDrip edgePan flashing (or felt sill strip) Weather-resistive barrier –lap over top of metal head flashing Wood sidingMetal head flashingSloped top and drip-edged head trimSealantSealant Window flange Weather-resistive barrier Wood structural panel sheathing Wood siding
Figure 1
Cross-seCtion of window showing integration of struCture’sweather-resistive system in a wall with wood siding
 
 Water can accumulate in walls from twosources: water leaks, and vapor ladenair that penetrates the wall to producecondensation. Water from leaks presentsthe greatest threat of water accumulationin walls. Since water can leak directlyinto the wall, it can quickly accumulateto levels that will degrade the woodcomponents as well as other productsin the wall. Moisture vapor from airpenetration and vapor diffusion areimportant, but represent much smalleramounts of water accumulation.
how water leaKs intowood wall ConstruCtion
 Water leaking through the envelope of a structure is the largest contributor tobuilding damage. Leaks are caused bya number of factors, including:
Improper or missing flashing
Improper installation of weather-resistive barriers
Poorly designed or executed wallintersections and penetrations Wood structures have the ability toabsorb, distribute and dissipate smallamounts of water, especially fromintermittent sources. Problems arisewhen there are design or constructionerrors that allow water into wall cavi-ties at a rate that exceeds the struc-ture’s ability to absorb and eliminatethe water. Wood construction willperform indefinitely if properly done,but is subject to failure if exposed toprolonged wetting where the woodmoisture content exceeds 19 percent.
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  •   A   L   L   R   I   G   H   T   S   R   E   S   E   R   V   E   D .  •   A   N   Y   C   O   P   Y   I   N   G ,   M   O   D   I   F   I   C   A   T   I   O   N ,   D   I   S   T   R   I   B   U   T   I   O   N   O   R   O   T   H   E   R   U   S   E   O   F   T   H   I   S   P   U   B   L   I   C   A   T   I   O   N   O   T   H   E   R   T   H   A   N   A   S   E   X   P   R   E   S   S   L   Y   A   U   T   H   O   R   I   Z   E   D   B   Y   A   P   A   I   S   P   R   O   H   I   B   I   T   E   D   B   Y   T   H   E   U .   S .   C   O   P   Y   R   I   G   H   T   L   A   W   S .
Figure 2
flashing window when using house wrap
Note:
In the case of single-wall construction consisting of siding applied direct to studs or over nonstructuralsheathing, it may be necessary to attach the windows to the outside of the building. In such instances, refer tothe manufacturer’s recommended installation procedures.
 
The control of water leaks into wallsinvolves proper design, constructionand maintenance. Design features suchas roof overhangs can provide moistureprotection. Proper construction incor-porates products like flashing, weather-resistant barriers, and caulks with thestructural and architectural componentsin such a way that water is deflected ordrained down and away from the wall.Proper maintenance of caulks and paintis necessary for long-term moistureperformance of walls.
preventing leaKswith flashing
Flashing is used to deflect water andthus prevent leaks around wall inter-sections, window and door openings,and penetrations. Flashing can bemade from galvanized steel, copper,aluminum, lead, vinyl or cut strips of weather-resistant barrier materials. Atsmall wall penetrations, such as exhaustvents, custom flashing is used in lieu of conventional flashing because of the irregular shapes.Flashing directs water flow down andaway from the interior of the structureto the outside of the wall covering. Inevery example shown here, the weather-resistant barrier laps over the top edgeof the flashing. In such a manner, theflashing is part of a whole weather-resistive system that is continuouslyredirecting water flow down and awayfrom the interior of the structure.Figures 1 through 14 illustrate examplesof typical flashing details for wood-framed walls with various exteriorfinishes.
3
Figure 3
flashing window when using Building paper
Note:
In the case of single-wall construction consisting of siding applied direct to studs or over nonstructuralsheathing, it may be necessary to attach the windows to the outside of the building. In such instances, refer tothe manufacturer’s recommended installation procedures.

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