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Aquaponics and Food Safety

Aquaponics and Food Safety

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Published by: kriskee13 on Feb 04, 2011
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Aquaponics and Food Safety
Gordon A Chalmers, DVMLethbridge, AlbertaApril, 2004
 
 
You never really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother.
-
Albert Einstein
So I left him, and as I went away, I said to myself, ‘Well, although I do not suppose that either of us knows anything, I am better off than he is. For he knows nothing, and thinks that he knows. I neither know nor think that I know. In this latter particular, I seem slightly to have the advantage of him’. -
Socrates
 On the antiquity of microbes: ‘Adam had ‘em’
.
-
 
Anon
 
1. Introduction.....................................................................................................................12. Aquaponics.....................................................................................................................23. Plants...............................................................................................................................4a)
 Bacillus thuringiensis
.................................................................................................5b) Insecticidal Soaps.......................................................................................................74. Fish..................................................................................................................................85. Water...............................................................................................................................9a) Algae.........................................................................................................................13
 
 b) Contaminants in Water.............................................................................................14i) Hormones..............................................................................................................14ii) Drugs....................................................................................................................15iii) Polychlorinated biphenyls...................................................................................15iv) Organic Pollutants -- Pesticides, Herbicides, etc.................................................16v) Manure..................................................................................................................17vi) Metals..................................................................................................................18vii) Odors, Off Flavors, etc.......................................................................................186. Feed...............................................................................................................................197. Food Safety...................................................................................................................208. Bacterial Diseases that may affect Fish and/or Humans...............................................23a)
Streptococcus
spp.....................................................................................................26b)
 Edwardsiella
spp......................................................................................................27c)
 Aeromonas
spp..........................................................................................................28d)
 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
....................................................................................29e)
Vibrio
spp..................................................................................................................30f)
 Mycobacterium
Spp...................................................................................................30g)
 Listeria
Spp...............................................................................................................31h)
Clostridium botulinum
..............................................................................................329. Public Health and Bacteria Associated with Fish.........................................................33a) Food poisoning caused by pathogens in the aquatic environment............................34b) Bacterial spoilage of fish..........................................................................................3510. Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance..........................................................................3611. ‘Neutraceuticals’ and Bacteriophages – Practical Alternatives to Antibiotics?.........41a) ‘Neutraceuticals’.......................................................................................................41i) Probiotics...............................................................................................................42ii) Prebiotics..............................................................................................................43iii) Immunostimulants...............................................................................................43iv)
Spirulina
spp........................................................................................................46b) Bacteriophages..........................................................................................................4612. Comments and Conclusions........................................................................................4713. Addendum...................................................................................................................52a) Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points...................................................................5214. Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................5315. References...................................................................................................................5416. Supplementary References..........................................................................................67

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