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Bridge Wp01 Rfid Tag Handbook

Bridge Wp01 Rfid Tag Handbook

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Published by: 'Antoinette Capasso-Backdahl on Feb 04, 2011
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06/17/2012

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B
uilding
R
adio frequency
ID
entification for the
G
lobal
E
nvironment
Sensor-enabled RFID tag handbook
Authors: Antti Ruhanen (Confidex), Marko Hanhikorpi (Confidex), Fabrizio Bertuccelli(CAEN), Annamaria Colonna (CAEN), Westy Malik (UPC), Damith Ranasinghe(Cambridge), Tomas Sánchez López (Cambridge), Na Yan (Fudan), Matti Tavilampi(UPM Raflatac)
January 2008
This work has been partly funded by the European Commission contract No: IST-2005-033546
 
About the BRIDGE Project:BRIDGE (
B
uilding
R
adio frequency
ID
entification for the
G
lobal
E
nvironment) is a 13 millionEuro RFID project running over 3 years and partly funded (
 €
7,5 million) by the EuropeanUnion. The objective of the BRIDGE project is to research, develop and implement tools toenable the deployment of EPCglobal applications in Europe. Thirty interdisciplinary partnersfrom 12 countries (Europe and Asia) are working together on : Hardware development, SerialLook-up Service, Serial-Level Supply Chain Control, Security; Anti-counterfeiting, DrugPedigree, Supply Chain Management, Manufacturing Process, Reusable AssetManagement, Products in Service, Item Level Tagging for non-food items as well asDissemination tools, Education material and Policy recommendations.For more information on the BRIDGE project:www.bridge-project.eu This document results from work being done in the framework of the BRIDGE project. It doesnot represent an official deliverable formally approved by the European Commission.This document:
This handbook is aimed at a wide range of users, namely students, end customers, researchers,system integrators, hardware software suppliers and IC suppliers planning to incorporate sensors with RFID. This handbook will give a good overview on the technical capabilities and limitations of this technology.
Disclaimer:
Copyright 2007 by (UPC, Confidex, CAEN, University of Cambridge, Fudan University, and UPM Raflatac) Allrights reserved. The information in this document is proprietary to these BRIDGE consortium membersThis document contains preliminary information and is not subject to any license agreement or any otheragreement as between with respect to the above referenced consortium members. This document contains onlyintended strategies, developments, and/or functionalities and is not intended to be binding on any of the abovereferenced consortium members (either jointly or severally) with respect to any particular course of business,product strategy, and/or development of the above referenced consortium members. To the maximum extentallowed under applicable law, the above referenced consortium members assume no responsibility for errors oromissions in this document. The above referenced consortium members do not warrant the accuracy orcompleteness of the information, text, graphics, links, or other items contained within this material. This documentis provided without a warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the impliedwarranties of merchantability, satisfactory quality, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. No licenceto any underlying IPR is granted or to be implied from any use or reliance on the information contained within oraccessed through this document. The above referenced consortium members shall have no liability for damagesof any kind including without limitation direct, special, indirect, or consequential damages that may result from theuse of these materials. This limitation shall not apply in cases of intentional or gross negligence. Because some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential or incidental damages, the abovelimitation may not apply to you. The statutory liability for personal injury and defective products is not affected.The above referenced consortium members have no control over the information that you may access through theuse of hot links contained in these materials and does not endorse your use of third-party Web pages nor provideany warranty whatsoever relating to third-party Web pages.
 
BRIDGE – Building Radio frequency IDentification solutions for the Global Environment 
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4
 
1.1 Purpose of the document ............................................................................................. 4
 
1.2 Theory and background ............................................................................................... 4
 
1.3 Sensor enabled RFID tag taxonomy ............................................................................ 5
 
1.3.1 Distinction between tag types ................................................................................ 5
 
1.3.2 EPCglobal tag classes ........................................................................................... 5
 
1.3.3 Sensor enabled RFID tags .................................................................................... 5
 
1.4 Usefulness of sensor enabled RFID tags ..................................................................... 6
 
2 State of the art .................................................................................................................... 7
 
2.1 Products on the market ................................................................................................ 7
 
2.1.1 RFID based technologies ...................................................................................... 7
 
2.1.2 Competitive technologies....................................................................................... 9
 
2.2 Patent research ........................................................................................................... 9
 
2.2.1 Tire pressure monitoring ........................................................................................ 9
 
2.2.2 Cold chain management .......................................................................................10
 
2.3 Applicable sensors ......................................................................................................11
 
2.3.1 Temperature Sensor .............................................................................................11
 
2.3.2 Pressure sensor ...................................................................................................13
 
2.3.3 Acceleration Sensor .............................................................................................14
 
2.3.4 Inclination Sensor .................................................................................................14
 
2.3.5 Humidity Sensor ...................................................................................................15
 
2.3.6 Light Sensor .........................................................................................................15
 
2.3.7 Gas Sensor ..........................................................................................................15
 
2.3.8 Chemical Sensor ..................................................................................................16
 
2.4 Power sources ............................................................................................................17
 
2.4.1 Small batteries ......................................................................................................17
 
2.4.2 Flexible batteries ..................................................................................................17
 
2.4.3 Power harvesting ..................................................................................................18
 
2.4.4 Rechargeable power sources ...............................................................................19
 
2.5 Tag manufacturing today and tomorrow ......................................................................19
 
2.5.1 Key components ...................................................................................................19
 
2.5.2 Manufacturing process for the sensor tags ...........................................................20
 
3 Wireless sensor data communication ................................................................................22
 
4 Features and Requirements of sensor enabled RFID tags ................................................23
 
5 Ambient intelligence with sensor-enabled RFID tags .........................................................27
 
5.1 An Introduction to Ambient Intelligence .......................................................................27
 
5.2 Enabling Technologies ................................................................................................28
 
5.2.1 RFID Technology .................................................................................................28
 
5.2.2 Sensors ................................................................................................................29
 
5.2.3 Sensor-enabled RFID devices ..............................................................................29
 
5.2.4 Information infrastructure ......................................................................................30
 
5.2.5 Technology convergence......................................................................................33
 
5.3 Architecting Ambient Intelligence ................................................................................34
 
5.3.1 Condition Monitoring .............................................................................................35
 
5.3.2 WSN related applications .....................................................................................35
 
5.3.3 Example Scenario ................................................................................................36
 
6 Real life pilot project with sensor enabled tags ..................................................................39
 
References ...........................................................................................................................41
 

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