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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Published by Gerard Bio
Biology Form 5
Biology Form 5

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Published by: Gerard Bio on Feb 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/06/2013

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 Form 5: Chapter 2 – Locomotion and Support 2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals
Chapter 2: Locomotion and Support2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals
Support System and Locomotion1. Provided by a skeleton.2. Types of skeleton:a) Exoskeleton – shell- insects and crabs- importance: i) supports important body organsii) protects the internal structures from damageiii) allows movementiv) waxy cuticles found on the surface of insects preventswater loss. b) Endoskeleton – bones and cartilage- vertebrates- importance: i) maintaining body shapeii) supporting soft tissueiii) protecting internal organs from injuryiv) stores mineral (calcium and phosphorus)v) produce blood cellsc) Hydrostatic skeleton – internal watery fluids held under pressure contained withinconfined spaces in the body surrounded by the muscles.- caterpillar and earthworm
The human skeleton
1. Parts:a) axial skeleton b) appendicular skeletonThe axial skeleton1. Consists of:a) skull b) vertebral columnc) the ribsd) sternum2. Skull consist of:a) Cranial bones – enclose and protect the brain b) Facial bones – protect and provide support for the entrances to the digestive systemand respiratory systemc) Suture – immovable joints which securely hold bones that make up the skulld) Jaw – movable joint
 Prepared by: Mr. Gerard Selvaraj
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 Form 5: Chapter 2 – Locomotion and Support 2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals Prepared by: Mr. Gerard Selvaraj
2
 
 Form 5: Chapter 2 – Locomotion and Support 2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals
3. Vertebral column (spine or backbone)a) composed of vertebrae. b) encloses and protects the spinal cord.c) supports the headd) serves as a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle and the muscles of the back and neck.e) cervical, thoracic and lumbar are moveable.f) sacrum and coccyx are immovable.g) invertebral discs in the vertebrae permits movement of the vertebral column andabsorb vertical shock.h) varies in size and shape.i) vertebral foramen encloses the spinal cords.
 Prepared by: Mr. Gerard Selvaraj
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