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A Historic Look at the Middle East

A Historic Look at the Middle East

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Published by Frank Nic. Bazsika
A historic look at several thousand years of this vital region soon to affect every person on this earth.
A historic look at several thousand years of this vital region soon to affect every person on this earth.

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Published by: Frank Nic. Bazsika on Feb 05, 2011
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01/03/2013

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1
 A Historic Look at the Middle East 
A Study Guide to this vital Region
Presentation of sources by author Frank Nic. Bazsika ©2011
Middle East Map
Presentation of the regions history;-
 
2
 
TIME PERIOD: Introduction
 
"For about two thousand years the name Palestine has been used internationally for thelands on both sides of the Jordan River... The name Palestine will here be used...to refer tothe area from southern Syria (the Beqa Valley) to Egypt and the Sinai, and from theMediterranean to the Arabian Desert.The Greek historian Herodotus called Cisjordan [the land west of the Jordan River] thePalestinian Syria or sometimes only Palaestina. Thus, there is a tradition from at least thefifth century B.C. for the use of this name... Another well-known name for Palestine, which is the most common one in the Bible, isCanaan. The earliest known reference to this name, read as 'Canaanites', is in a letter from[the kingdom of] Mari (on the Euphrates) [see 700 mile radius map] to Iasmah-Adad fromthe eighteenth century B.C... The letter does not give any information about the territory of these Canaanites... In many Egyptian texts Canaan refers to southern Syria and Palestine...The Sinai Peninsula is not part of Palestine, but because of its geographical locationbetween Egypt proper and Palestine it has a place in a history of Palestine." 
Gosta W. Ahlstrom,
the History of Ancient Palestine
, p. 56-66, Sheffield Academic Press, 1993
TIME PERIOD: 3200 - 1850 BCE
 
"
It was the destiny of the Holy Land, situated at
 
the south-west end of the Fertile Crescent,to be a bridge between the two cradles of civilization, Mesopotamia (Babylonia-Assyria)and Egypt, at its extremities [see 700 mile radius]. It lay astride the principal land routesbetween the great powers of antiquity...Two international caravan routes bisected the country. One was the Via Maris, 'Way of theSea', running from Egypt along the coastal plain up to the Phoenician coast, with inland
 
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branches from the Plain of Sharon, the Jezreel Valley through the Lebanese Beqa', or theoasis of Damascus to Mesopotamia.The other, the 'King's Way', cut right across the desert to Kadesh-barnea or to the Aravaand ran through the Transjordan plateau and Damascus to Mesopotamia.
"
 
H
anoch Reviv, "The Canaanite and Israelite Periods (3200 - 332 BCE),"
 A History of Israel and the Holy Land 
, 2001
"
Evidence of Egyptian involvement in the affairs of Palestine and Syria during the 1st and2nd Dynasties [3080 - 2687 BCE] is unmistakable. In the surviving fragments of annalsfrom the reigns of the immediate successors of Menes [1st ruler of unified Egypt], oneoften encounters an entry such as 'smiting the Asiatics,' or 'first occasion of smiting theeast,' as an identifying event by which to designate a year.
"
 
D
onald B. Redford,
Eg 
ypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times
, 1992
"
The Egyptians could, and frequently did, resort to naked force in gaining their ends inPalestine...The few surviving texts from the Old Kingdom [3rd-6th Dynasties 2688 - 2191B.C.] that deal with the subject do not equivocate. The most common verb used is 'tosmite,' referring to mortal combat. The enemy are 'slaughtered,' 'put to flight,' or 'cowed,'and the survivors brought off to Egypt as prisoners.
"
 
D
onald B. Redford,
Eg 
ypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times
, 1992
"
In place of the semi-industrialized society of Early Bronze III [2688 - 2191 B.C.], whichcould indulge in international trade, naught is left but rustic pastoralism in whichstockbreeding looms large at the expense of agriculture...The increase of nonurban,transhumant economy in post-Early Bronze III Palestine could be put down in largemeasure to the depredations of the Egyptian armed forces.
"
 
D
onald B. Redford,
Eg 
ypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times
, 1992
"
Following the impoverished Middle Bronze I [2200 - 1950 BCE], with its sparse populationof elusive transhumants, there comes the birth of a new cultural phase, which is notdescended from Middle Bronze I. Middle Bronze IIA [1950 - 1750 BCE] represents theintroduction into the Levant of a culture with contacts with the north [Amorite states].
"
 
D
onald B. Redford,
Eg 
ypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times
, 1992

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