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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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CHAPTER 3. MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTTABLE OF CONTENTS
3.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 3-13.2 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER DEFINITION ........................... 3-13.3 PRODUCT CLASSES.................................................. 3-63.4 NATIONAL SHIPMENT ESTIMATE ..................................... 3-73.5 MANUFACTURERS OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS................. 3-93.5.1 Small Business Impacts .......................................... 3-103.5.2 Distribution and Sales Channels ................................... 3-103.6 TOTAL OWNING COST EVALUATION ................................. 3-123.7 VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS ........................................... 3-133.7.1 National Electrical Manufacturers Association TP 1 Standard ............ 3-133.7.2 Energy Star Transformers ........................................ 3-153.7.3 Consortium for Energy Efficiency .................................. 3-163.7.4 Federal Energy Management Program............................... 3-163.7.5 Efficiency Vermont ............................................. 3-163.7.6 Idaho Power ................................................... 3-173.7.7 National Grid .................................................. 3-173.7.8 NHSaves ..................................................... 3-173.7.9 Northeast Utilities .............................................. 3-183.7.10 Seattle City Light ............................................... 3-183.7.11 Tacoma Power ................................................. 3-193.7.12 Two Rivers Water and Light ...................................... 3-193.7.13 United Illuminating ............................................. 3-193.7.14 Wisconsin Public Power ......................................... 3-203.7.15 Xcel Energy ................................................... 3-203.8 REGULATORY PROGRAMS .......................................... 3-203.8.1 Arizona Efficiency Standard ...................................... 3-213.8.2 California Efficiency Standard..................................... 3-213.8.3 Connecticut Efficiency Standard ................................... 3-213.8.4 Maryland Efficiency Standard ..................................... 3-213.8.5 Massachusetts Efficiency Standard ................................. 3-213.8.6 Minnesota Procurement Efficiency Standard.......................... 3-233.8.7 New Jersey Efficiency Standard ................................... 3-233.8.8 New York Efficiency Standard .................................... 3-233.8.9 Oregon Efficiency Standard ....................................... 3-233.8.10 Rhode Island Efficiency Standard .................................. 3-243.8.11 Washington Efficiency Standard ................................... 3-243.8.12 Wisconsin Efficiency Standard .................................... 3-243.8.13 Burlington, Vermont Efficiency Standard ............................ 3-243.8.14 Proposed State Efficiency Standards ................................ 3-243.8.15 U.S. National Energy Bill - EPACT 2005 ............................ 3-253.8.16 Canadian Efficiency Standard ..................................... 3-253.8.17 Mexican Efficiency Standard...................................... 3-28
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3.9 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT ........................................ 3-333.9.13.9.23.9.3Table 3.3.1Table 3.4.1Table 3.7.1Table 3.7.2Table 3.7.3Table 3.7.4Table 3.7.5Table 3.7.6Table 3.7.7Table 3.7.8Table 3.8.1Table 3.8.2Table 3.8.3Table 3.8.4Table 3.8.5Table 3.8.6Table 3.8.7Table 3.9.1Figure 3.4.1Figure 3.4.2Figure 3.5.1Figure 3.9.1Figure 3.9.2Distribution Transformer Types .................................... 3-34Transformer Efficiency Levels ..................................... 3-34Transformer Losses ............................................. 3-36
LIST OF TABLES
Distribution Transformer Product Classes ............................. 3-7 National Distribution Transformer Shipment Estimates for 2001 ........... 3-8 NEMA Efficiency Levels for Liquid-Immersed Distribution Transformers .. 3-14 NEMA Efficiency Levels for Dry-Type Distribution Transformers ........ 3-15Efficiency Vermont Rebate Amounts ............................... 3-16 National Grid Design 2000 Rebate Amounts ......................... 3-17 NHSaves’ New Equipment and Construction Program Rebate Amounts .... 3-18 Northeast Utilities Energy Conscious Construction Rebate Amounts ....... 3-18Tacoma Power Transformer Rebate Amounts ......................... 3-19United Illuminating Transformer Rebate Amounts ..................... 3-20Comparison of Massachusetts State Energy Efficiency Standards for MV Dry-Type Distribution Transformers to DOE NOPR TSLs .................. 3-22Canadian Efficiency Regulations for Dry-Type Transformers ............ 3-28Characteristics of Regulated Distribution Transformers in Mexico ........ 3-29Minimum Efficiency Levels for Transformers in Mexico ................ 3-30Maximum Allowed Losses for Transformers in Mexico ................. 3-31Transitional Standards for Small Manufacturers in Mexico .............. 3-32Transitional Maximum Losses for Small Manufacturers in Mexico ........ 3-33Options and Impacts of Increasing Transformer Efficiency .............. 3-37
LIST OF FIGURES
Liquid-Immersed Distribution Transformer Shipment Estimate, 2001 ....... 3-8MV Dry-Type Distribution Transformer Shipment Estimate, 2001 ......... 3-8Market Delivery Channels for Distribution Transformers ................ 3-11Transformer Losses Vary with Load (75 kVA Dry-Type) ................ 3-35Transformer Efficiency Varies with Load ............................ 3-36
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CHAPTER 3. MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides a profile of the distribution transformer industry in the UnitedStates. The Department developed the preliminary market and technology assessment presentedin this chapter primarily from publicly available information. This assessment is helpful inidentifying the major manufacturers and their product characteristics, which form the basis for the engineering and the life-cycle cost (LCC) analyses.
3.2 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER DEFINITION
The definition of a distribution transformer was presented in the Energy Policy Act(EPACT) of 2005, and then further refined by DOE when it was codified into the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) on April 27, 2006. 10 CFR 431.192; 71 FR 24972.EPACT 2005 established that the definition of a distribution transformer would be asfollows:The term 'distribution transformer' means a transformer that -(i)has an input voltage of 34.5 kilovolts or less;(ii)has an output voltage of 600 volts or less; and(iii)is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 Hertz.The term 'distribution transformer' does not include -(i)a transformer with multiple voltage taps, the highest of which equals at least20 percent more than the lowest;(ii)a transformer that is designed to be used in a special purpose application andis unlikely to be used in general purpose applications, such as a drivetransformer, rectifier transformer, auto-transformer, impedance transformer,regulating transformer, sealed and non-ventilating transformer, machine tooltransformer, welding transformer, grounding transformer, or testingtransformer; or (iii)any transformer not listed in clause (ii) that is excluded by the Secretary byrule because -(I)the transformer is designed for a special application;(II)the transformer is unlikely to be used in general purpose applications; and(III) the application of standards to the transformer would not result insignificant energy savings.The term ‘low-voltage dry-type distribution transformer’ means a distribution transformer that— (A) has an input voltage of 600 volts or less;(B) is air-cooled; and(C) does not use oil as a coolant.
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