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Coastal Geology

Coastal Geology

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Published by Salman Akbar
geology part-IV
geology part-IV

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Published by: Salman Akbar on Feb 05, 2011
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CECW-EGEngineer Manual1110-2-1810
Department of the Army
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, DC 20314-1000
EM 1110-2-181031 January 1995Engineering and DesignCOASTAL GEOLOGY
Distribution Restriction Statement
Approved for public release; distribution isunlimited.
 
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
EM 1110-2-1810
U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
CECW-EG
Washington, DC 20314-1000
ManualNo. 1110-2-1810 31 January 1995
Engineering and DesignCOASTAL GEOLOGY
1. Purpose.
This manual provides an overview of coastal geology and a discussion of data sources and fieldstudy methods applicable to coastal geological studies. This manual is intended for use by USACE engineers,geologists, and oceanographers tasked with conducting coastal geological investigations.
2. Applicability.
This manual applies to all HQUSACE elements, major subordinate commands, districts,laboratories, and field operating activities having civil works responsibilities.FOR THE COMMANDER:Colonel, Corps of EngineersChief of Staff 
 
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
EM 1110-2-1810
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
CECW-EG
Washington, DC 20314-1000
ManualNo. 1110-2-1810 31 January 1995
Engineering and DesignCOASTAL GEOLOGY
Table of Contents
Subject Paragraph Page
Chapter 1Introduction
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-1Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1-1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 1-1Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 1-1Organization of This Manual . . . . 1-5 1-2Proponent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 1-3Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 1-4
Chapter 2Coastal Terminology andGeologic Environments
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2-1Coastal Zone Definitionsand Subdivisions . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2-1Geologic Time andDefinitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2-3Water Level Datumsand Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 2-5Factors InfluencingCoastal Geology . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2-6Sea Level Changes . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 2-20Cultural (Man-Made) Influenceson Coastal Geology . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2-29
Chapter 3Coastal Classificationand Morphology
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1Coastal Classification . . . . . . . . . 3-2 3-1Drowned River Coasts-Estuaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3-1Drowned Glacial ErosionCoasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 3-9River Deposition Coasts-Deltas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3-10Wind Deposition Coasts-Dunes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 3-10
Subject Paragraph Page
Volcanic Coasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 3-13Sea Cliffs-Diastrophic, Erosional,and Volcanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3-18Marine Deposition Coasts-Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 3-22Marine Deposition Coasts-Beaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3-28Salt Marshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 3-33Biological Coasts . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 3-35Continental Shelf Geologyand Topography . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3-40
Chapter 4Coastal Morphodynamics
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4-1Introduction to Bed Forms . . . . . 4-2 4-1Deltaic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4-4Inlet Processes andDynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 4-17Morphodynamics and ShorefaceProcesses of ClasticSediment Shores . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4-33Cohesive Shore Processesand Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 4-55
Chapter 5Coastal GeologicalInvestigations
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5-1Sources of ExistingCoastal Information . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 5-1Field Data Collectionand Observation . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 5-10Laboratory Techniquesand Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 5-32Analysis and Interpretationof Coastal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5 5-40Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 5-90

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