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1 Introduction
1.1 What is geodesy and why coordinate systems?
1.2 Geodetic measurements and errors
2 System of Natural Coordinates
2.1 Newton’s Law of Gravitation - Gravitational Acceleration and Po- tential
2.2 Gravity Potential and Centrifugal Potential
2.3 Level Surfaces and Plumb Lines
2.4 Natural Coordinates
3 Celestial Coordinate Systems
3.1 The Celestial Sphere
3.2 The Horizon System - H
3.3 The Right Ascension System - RA
3.4 The Hour Angle System - HA
3.5 The Ecliptic System - E
3.6 Reﬂection and Rotation Matrices
3.7 Transformations Between Celestial Systems
Transformation between HA and RA
Spherical triangle
Astronomical triangle connecting H and HA
Time systems used in astronomic azimuth determination
Sidereal time and hour angle
Determination of the astronomic azimuth
3.9 Hour angle method
The error budget for the hour angle method using Polaris:
Observation procedure
Computation procedure
3.10 Astronomic azimuth determination by the altitude method
References
4 Time Systems
4.1 Sidereal Time
4.2 Solar or Universal Time
4.3 Conversion between Sidereal and Solar Time
4.4 Time Zones and Calendar Time
Time Zones
Calendar Time
4.5 Atomic Time
Time Transmitters
5 Terrestrial Coordinate Systems
5.1 The Best Fitting Ellipsoid
5.2 Basic Ellipsoidal Geometry
5.3 Coordinates on the Ellipsoid - Geodetic Coordinate Systems
Geodetic Coordinates
The Reduced Latitude
The Geocentric Latitude
Relations Between Φ,φ,β,γ
5.4 Transformation Between Cartesian and Curvilinear Geodetic Co- ordinates
6 Coordinate Transformations
6.1 Transformation Between Systems with Different Origins and Ori- entations
6.2 Transformations Between Local and Global Systems
6.3 The Datum Problem Today
6.4 Summary of Coordinate Systems and Transformations
7 Basics of Map Projections
7.1 Direct and inverse geodetic problem
7.2 Coordinate transformations in mapping
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Notes on Coordinate Systems

# Notes on Coordinate Systems

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12/06/2012

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