The object of this experiment was to establish the stress-strain relation ship of ductilemetals and brittle materials.
The determination of a material’s mechanical properties indicates what type of applications a material can be used for. For example, a material that has a high elastictendency would be an ideal material to select for the manufacture of a spring, whereas ahighly ductile material with a low elastic tendency would be a poor choice. Themechanical properties of a material consist of its yield strength, tensile strength, modulusof elasticity and a host of other properties beyond the scope of this experiment. The termstrength is used instead of stress because the strength is a property applied to the testmaterial and stress,
, is related to the magnitude of the applied load,
, divided by thecross sectional area of the specimen,
σ = F/A
The determination of a material’s tensile properties can be accomplished bymeans of a uniaxial tension test. A depiction of a tension test apparatus can be seen inFigure 1. A test specimen is locked into the apparatus and a load is applied in eithercompression or tension. For the purposes of this experiment, a tension test will be thefocus. As a tensile force is applied, the material will elongate and eventually fracture.As the material’s dimensions change, observations of the force applied are made and usedto determine certain mechanical properties of the material such as the yield strength andthe ultimate tensile strength.
Uniaxial tension test apparatus (Source: Fundamentals of Material Scienceand Engineering: An Integrated Approach, W.D. Callister, Jr and D.G. Rethwish, 2008)