WATER-SUPPLY, SPRINKLER, AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS
If a wastewater system is subject to the backﬂow of sewage from a sewer,suitable provision should be made to prevent sewage from entering the building.The structural safety of a building should not be impaired in any way as a resultof the installation, alteration, renovation, or replacement of a plumbing system.Pipes should be installed and supported to prevent stresses and strains that wouldcause malfunction of or damage to the system. Provision should be made for ex-pansion and contraction of the pipes due to temperature changes and for structuralsettlements that might affect the pipes.Where pipes pass through a construction that is required to have a ﬁre-resistancerating, the space between the pipe and the opening or a pipe sleeve should notexceed
in. The gap should be completely ﬁlled with code-approved, ﬁre-stoppingmaterial and closed off with close-ﬁtting metal escutcheons on both sides of theconstruction.Pipes, especially those in exterior walls or underground outside the building,should be protected, with insulation or heat, to prevent freezing. Underground pipesshould be placed below established frost lines to prevent damage from heaving andin high trafﬁc areas should be encased in concrete or installed deep enough so asto not be damaged by heavy trafﬁc. Pipes subject to external corrosion should beprotected with coatings, wrappings, cathodic protection, or other means that willprevent corrosion. Dissimilar metals should not be connected to each other unlessseparated by a dielectric ﬁtting. Otherwise, corrosion will result.Each plumbing system component, such as domestic water, natural gas, andwastewater pipes and ﬁxtures, should be tested in accordance with the plumbingcode. All defects found during the test should be properly corrected and the systemretested until the system passes the requirements of the test.
Enough water to meet the needs of occupants must be available for all buildings.Further water needs for ﬁre protection, heating, air conditioning, and possibly pro-cess use must also be met. This section provides speciﬁc data on all these waterneeds, except those for process use. Water needs for process use must be computedseparately because the demand depends on the process served.
14.3 WATER QUALITY
Sources of water for buildings include public water supplies, groundwater, andsurface water. Each source requires careful study to determine if a sufﬁcient quantityof safe water is available for the building being designed.Water for human consumption, commonly called potable water, must be of suit-able quality to meet local, state, and national requirements. Public water suppliesgenerally furnish suitably treated water to a building, eliminating the need for treat-ment in the building. However, ground and surface waters may require treatmentprior to distribution for human consumption. Useful data on water treatment areavailable from the American Water Works Association, Denver, Col.Useful data on water supplies for buildings are available in the followingpublications: American Society of Civil Engineers, ‘‘Glossary-Water and SewerControl Engineering;’’ E. W. Steel, ‘‘Water Supply and Sewerage,’’ McGraw-Hill