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Published by Zulkifli Mohd Sidi

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Published by: Zulkifli Mohd Sidi on Feb 06, 2011
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 This is Chapter 1 of the book
 A Technical Introduction toDigital Video
 , by CharlesPoynton. Copyright © 1996John Wiley & Sons.
 Basic principles 1
This chapter is a summary of the fundamental conceptsof digital video.If you are unfamiliar with video, this chapter will intro-duce the major issues, to acquaint you with theframework and nomenclature that you will need toaddress the rest of the book. If you are already knowl-edgeable about video, this chapter will provide a quickrefresher, and will direct you to specific topics aboutwhich you’d like to learn more.
The three-dimensional world is imaged by the lens ofthe human eye onto the retina, which is populated withphotoreceptor cells that respond to light having wave-lengths in the range of about 400 nm to 700 nm. In animaging system, we build a camera having a lens and aphotosensitive device, to mimic how the world isperceived by vision.Although the shape of the retina is roughly a section ofa sphere, it is topologically two-dimensional. In acamera, for practical reasons, we employ a flat
sketched in Figure 1.1 overleaf, instead of aspherical image surface. Image system theory concernsanalyzing the continuous distribution of power that isincident on the image plane.A photographic camera has, in the image plane, filmthat is subject to chemical change when irradiated by
light. The active ingredient of photographic film iscontained in a thin layer of particles having carefullycontrolled size and shape, in a pattern with no coherentstructure. If the particles are sufficiently dense, animage can be reproduced that has sufficient informa-tion for a human observer to get a strong sense of theoriginal scene. The finer the particles and the moredensely they are arranged in the film medium, thehigher will be the capability of the film to record spatialdetail.
Signals captured from the physical world are translatedinto digital form by
, which involves twoprocesses. A signal is digitized when it is subjected toboth
, in either order. Whenan audio signal is sampled, the single dimension of timeis carved into discrete intervals. When an image issampled, two-dimensional space is partitioned intosmall, discrete regions. Quantization assigns an integer to the amplitude of the signal in each interval or region.1-D sampling A signal that is a continuous one-dimensional functionof time, such as an audio signal, is sampled throughforming a series of discrete values, each of which repre-sents the signal at an instant of time.
, where the time intervals are of equal dura-tion, is ubiquitous.2-D sampling A continuous two-dimensional function of space issampled by assigning, to each element of a sampling
Figure 1.1
Scene, lens, image plane.
grid, a value that is a function of the distribution ofintensity over a small region of space. In digital videoand in conventional image processing, the samples lieon a regular, rectangular grid.Samples need not be digital: A CCD camera is inher-ently sampled, but it is not inherently quantized.Analog video is not sampled horizontally, but issampled vertically by scanning, and sampled tempo-rally at the frame rate.
Pixel array
A digital image is represented by a matrix of values,where each value is a function of the informationsurrounding the corresponding point in the image.A single element in an image matrix is a
, or 
. In a color system, a pixel includesinformation for all color components. Several commonformats are sketched in Figure 1.2 below.In computing it is conventional to use a sampling gridhaving equal horizontal and vertical sample pitch –
square pixels
. The term
refers to the samplepitch; it should not be taken to imply that image infor-mation associated with the pixel is distributed uniformlythroughout a square region. Many video systems usesampling grids where the horizontal and vertical samplepitch are not equal.
High-Definition Television (HDTV), 2 Mpx
Workstation, 1 Mpx
1⁄ 2
Video, 300 Kpx
SIF,82 KpxHigh-Definition Television (HDTV), 1 Mpx
Figure 1.2
Pixel array.

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