A TECHNICAL INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL VIDEO
light. The active ingredient of photographic ﬁlm iscontained in a thin layer of particles having carefullycontrolled size and shape, in a pattern with no coherentstructure. If the particles are sufﬁciently dense, animage can be reproduced that has sufﬁcient informa-tion for a human observer to get a strong sense of theoriginal scene. The ﬁner the particles and the moredensely they are arranged in the ﬁlm medium, thehigher will be the capability of the ﬁlm to record spatialdetail.
Signals captured from the physical world are translatedinto digital form by
, which involves twoprocesses. A signal is digitized when it is subjected toboth
, in either order. Whenan audio signal is sampled, the single dimension of timeis carved into discrete intervals. When an image issampled, two-dimensional space is partitioned intosmall, discrete regions. Quantization assigns an integer to the amplitude of the signal in each interval or region.1-D sampling A signal that is a continuous one-dimensional functionof time, such as an audio signal, is sampled throughforming a series of discrete values, each of which repre-sents the signal at an instant of time.
, where the time intervals are of equal dura-tion, is ubiquitous.2-D sampling A continuous two-dimensional function of space issampled by assigning, to each element of a sampling
Scene, lens, image plane.