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Gear Cutting Machines - Ch 9

Gear Cutting Machines - Ch 9

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Published by: garagepunkfan on Feb 06, 2011
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181
9
GEAR-CUTTING MACHINES
For the manufacture of gear wheels, comparatively complicated and highly precise machinetools are required. The wide variety of existing types of machines is the result of the effortmade to find economic production methods for the geometrically diverse gear-tooth forms. Therequirements of a gear-cutting machine result from the demands that are made by the machineelement 'gear wheel', e.g.:(
) high geometric accuracy, notwithstanding the complicated form necessary for the smoothtransmission of motion;
(b)
high material strength to enable the transmission of large torques with small-sized wheels;(
) large varieties of design, particularly in the field of small-batch and 'one .off' production, inorder to optimize specialized drive characteristics.Systematic classifications of gear-cutting machines can be made from a variety of differentstandpoints. As a general survey, all techniques for the production of gear wheels aresummarized in
Fig. 9.1
. From the aspect of the qualities obtainable, differentiation may bemade between roughing and fine-finishing processes. In line with the previous chapters, thetechniques will be divided into chip-producing and chipless production methods. The chip-producing machines are further subdivided according to the cutting geometry of their cuttingtools.
 
182
Fig. 9.1 Gear manufacture techniques 
In order to achieve an economic production rate, whilst at the same time maintaining a highdegree of accuracy of the gears produced, gear cutting is commenced with a high cuttingspeed and fast feed rates. This is then followed with a finishing process. For rough gearcutting, the processes most widely used are those of hobbing, gear shaping and for larger gearwheels, gear planing; for finishing work, the most widely used technique is that of gear grindingwhich, in contrast to gear shaving and fine gear rolling, may be carried out after heat treatmenton hardened gear wheels.From the point of view of the kinematic action of the machine, gear-cutting techniques may beclassified as shown in
Fig. 9.2
into form cutting (copying) and gene rating processes.
 
183
Fig. 9.2 Gear cutting techniques from the point of view of machine kinematics 
When using the form-cutting processes, the tool (milling cutter, end mill, grinding wheel) ismade with the contour of the finished tooth space. Each tooth space is individually finished andthe gear wheel being cut is then indexed through an angle, depending on the number of teethto be produced, to allow the next tooth space to be out (single-indexing method). The cutterprofile must be of the exact form of the required tooth space, which means that for every set-upof a different gear wheel to be cut, a special cutting tool is required. Consequently, thistechnique is almost exclusively used for the 'one off' manufacture of large gear wheels, or inthe mass production of very small gear wheels for the precision engineering industry.When using generating methods, the involute is generated as a result of the relative "motionsbetween the cutting tool and the gear being cut. This has been achieved through a kinematiccoupling between the cutter and the work, normally in the form of a closed gear train. The formof the tooth flank consists of a contour resulting from individual flats produced by the cuttingtool. The position of the cutter in relation to the gear being cut may be moved incrementally(index-gene rating technique) or continuously (continuously generating technique). The cuttingtool itself has straight flanks and, in contrast to the form-cutting process, may be used for awider range of work of a given module. In order to standardize and reduce the number of toolsto be stocked, the basic profile of spur gears is defined by the normal section of a rack (which

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