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42641363 Hazardous Areas Tech Guide

42641363 Hazardous Areas Tech Guide

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Published by Terry Waldrop

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Published by: Terry Waldrop on Feb 06, 2011
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11/14/2011

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HAZARDOUS AREASTECHNICAL GUIDE
 
INTRODUCTION
................................................................................................................................................................................06
DIRECTIVES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS
................................................................................................................08
2.1 EC directives....................................................................................................................................................................082.1.1 Directive 94/9/EC – ATEX 95..........................................................................................................................................082.1.2 Directive 1999/92/EC – ATEX 137..................................................................................................................................122.2North America.................................................................................................................................................................122.3 International IECEx scheme..........................................................................................................................................132.3.1 IECEx scheme objective................................................................................................................................................132.3.2 IECEx international certification scheme...................................................................................................................132.3.3 Scheme participation levels.........................................................................................................................................132.3.4 How the system will work during transition...............................................................................................................142.3.5 Complying with additional requirements....................................................................................................................14
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
......................................................................................................15
3.1 Explosive atmosphere....................................................................................................................................................153.2 Ignition sources..............................................................................................................................................................153.3 The hazard triangle........................................................................................................................................................15
GASES AND VAPOURS
..................................................................................................................................................................16
4.1 Characteristics of gases and vapours........................................................................................................................164.1.1 Principles.........................................................................................................................................................................164.1.2 Temperature classification...........................................................................................................................................174.2 Area classification.........................................................................................................................................................184.2.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................................184.2.2 Definition of zones..........................................................................................................................................................184.2.3 Grades of release, extent of zones, ventilation.........................................................................................................194.3 Gas explosion protection concepts for electrical equipment.................................................................................214.3.1 Zones of use....................................................................................................................................................................214.3.2 Protection concepts.......................................................................................................................................................214.4 Installations.....................................................................................................................................................................324.4.1 Selection of electrical apparatus................................................................................................................................324.4.2 Protection against dangerous incendive sparking...................................................................................................324.4.3 Electrical protection.......................................................................................................................................................334.4.4Wiring systems...............................................................................................................................................................334.4.5Additional requirements for flame-proof enclosures 'd'.........................................................................................334.4.6Additional requirements for increased safety 'e'.....................................................................................................344.5Inspection and maintenance........................................................................................................................................354.5.1General requirements....................................................................................................................................................354.5.2Inspections......................................................................................................................................................................364.5.3Regular periodic inspections........................................................................................................................................364.5.4Continuous supervision by skilled personnel............................................................................................................374.5.5Maintenance...................................................................................................................................................................374.5.6Repair...............................................................................................................................................................................37
COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS
.................................................................................................................................................................38
5.1Definitions and dust characteristics...........................................................................................................................385.1.1General.............................................................................................................................................................................385.1.2Directives and standards relevant to dust.................................................................................................................385.1.3Dust definitions...............................................................................................................................................................395.1.4Dust characteristics.......................................................................................................................................................395.2Area classification.........................................................................................................................................................405.2.1Definitions of zones........................................................................................................................................................405.2.2Grades of release, extent of zones, housekeeping...................................................................................................415.3Dust explosion protection measures..........................................................................................................................425.3.1Protective systems.........................................................................................................................................................425.3.2Protection by enclosure 'tD'.........................................................................................................................................435.3.3Protection by pressurisation 'pD'................................................................................................................................445.3.4Protection by encapsulation 'mD'...............................................................................................................................445.3.5Protection by intrinsic safety 'iD'.................................................................................................................................44
CONTENTS
04SECTION 0

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