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Homework #4, Sec 11.1 and 11.2

Homework #4, Sec 11.1 and 11.2

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Published by Masaya Sato
Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote
Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

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Published by: Masaya Sato on Feb 07, 2011
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04/03/2013

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Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya SatoSection 11.14.
Prove that the space of real-valued functions on the closed interval [
a,b
] is an infinitedimensional vector space over
R
, where
a < b
.
Proof.
First observe that the space
([
a,b
]
,
R
) of real-valued function on [
a,b
] is an abeliangroup under the pointwise addition,
i.e.
(
+
g
)(
x
) =
(
x
) +
g
(
x
)
f,g
([
a,b
]
,
R
)
x
[
a,b
].Then for all
f,g
([
a,b
]
,
R
) and
r,s
R
1. (
rs
)
=
r
(
sf 
)2. 1
=
3. (
r
+
s
)
=
rf 
+
sf 
4.
r
(
+
g
) =
rf 
+
rg
,where the ring action is given by the pointwise multiplication
rf 
(
x
) for all
([
a,b
]
,
R
)and all
r
R
. Thus
([
a,b
]
,
R
) is a vector space over
R
.Now we want to claim that
([
a,b
]
,
R
) is infinite dimensional. So suppose by contradictionthat
([
a,b
]
,
R
) is finite dimensional with a basis
{
i
,...,f 
n
|
i
([
a,b
]
,
R
)
i
= 1
,...,n
}
.Since each
i
is chosen to be a basis element,
i
is not a zero function. So each compactsupport
i
of 
i
is not empty. Therefore for every
([
a,b
]
,
R
) there are
a
1
,...a
n
R
such that
=
a
1
1
+
···
+
a
n
n
,and the compact support of 
is given by
i
1
∪ ··· ∪
i
k
, where 1
i
1
≤ ··· ≤
i
k
n
.However
([
a,b
]
,
R
) contains a real-valued function
g
whose compact support is distinctfrom any of 
i
1
∪···∪
i
k
. This contradicts that the space
([
a,b
]
,
R
) is finite dimensional.Hence
([
a,b
]
,
R
) is infinite dimensional.
5.
Prove that the space of continuous real-valued functions on the closed interval [
a,b
] is aninfinite dimensional vector space over
R
, where
a < b
.
Proof.
The same argument above applies to this problem, and the space
([
a,b
]
,
R
) of con-tinuous real-valued functions is a vector space over
R
. Now consider the space
R
[
x
] of polynomials of one variable
x
defined over the closed interval [
a,b
]. [
x
] is a subspace of 
([
a,b
]
,
R
), and a basis is given by
{
1
,x,x
2
,...
}
.Thus
R
[
x
] is infinite dimensional and hence
([
a,b
]
,
R
) is infinite dimensional as well.
6.
Let
be a vector space of finite dimension. If 
ϕ
is any linear transformation from
to
prove there is an integer
m
such that the intersection of the image of 
ϕ
m
and the kernelof 
ϕ
m
is
{
0
}
.
Abstract Algebr
by Dummit and Foote 1
 
Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato
Proof.
Observe first that
ϕ
(
)
. Then there exists some integer
m
Z
>
0
such that
···
=
ϕ
m
+1
(
) =
ϕ
m
(
)
ϕ
m
1
(
)
⊆ ··· ⊆
ϕ
(
)
because
is finite dimensional. Now let
v
im
ϕ
m
ker
ϕ
m
. Then there is some
w
such that
v
=
ϕ
m
(
w
)since
v
im
ϕ
. Moreover
ϕ
m
(
v
) = 0since
v
ker
ϕ
. Therefore
v
=
ϕ
m
(
w
) =
ϕ
2
m
(
w
) =
ϕ
m
ϕ
m
(
w
) =
ϕ
m
(
v
) = 0and hence im
ϕ
m
ker
ϕ
m
=
.
Sec 11.29.
If 
is a subspace of the vector space
stable under the linear transformation
ϕ
(
i.e.
ϕ
(
)
), show that
ϕ
induces linear transformations
ϕ
|
on
and
ϕ
on the quotientvector space
V/W 
. If 
ϕ
|
and
ϕ
are nonsingular prove
ϕ
is nonsingular. Prove the converseholds if 
has finite dimension and give a counterexample with
infinite dimensional.
Proof.
Since
ϕ
(
)
,
ϕ
|
is naturally induced by
ϕ
|
(
w
) =
ϕ
(
w
)
w
.It is immediate to show that
ϕ
|
is well-defined since
ϕ
is well-defined. Also
ϕ
is inducedby
ϕ
(
v
) =
ϕ
(
v
) +
.Then for all
v
1
=
v
2
V/W 
there exists some
w
such that
v
1
=
v
2
+
w
, and
ϕ
(
v
1
) =
ϕ
(
v
2
+
w
) =
ϕ
(
v
2
+
w
) +
=
ϕ
(
v
2
) +
ϕ
(
w
) +
=
ϕ
(
v
2
) +
=
ϕ
(
v
2
)since
is invariant under
ϕ
. So
ϕ
is well-defined.Now suppose that both
ϕ
|
and
ϕ
are nonsingular. Then for all
v
ker
ϕ
if 
v
,then0 =
ϕ
(
v
) =
ϕ
|
(
v
).So
v
ker
ϕ
|
= 0 and thus
v
= 0. Otherwise if 
v
(
)
{
0
}
for
v
ker
ϕ
, then
ϕ
(
v
) = 0
ϕ
(
v
) +
= 0 +
ϕ
(
v
) = 0.Because
ϕ
is nonsingular,
v
= 0. Therefore
v
implies that
v
= 0 since
v
(
)
∪{
0
}
.Thus
ϕ
is nonsingular.
Abstract Algebr
by Dummit and Foote 2
 
Section 11.1 and 11.2. Homework #4 Masaya Sato
Next suppose that
is finite dimensional and
ϕ
is nonsingular. Since
ϕ
is an isomorphismwith a subspace
stable under
ϕ
, its restriction
ϕ
|
is also an isomorphism on
. Soker
ϕ
|
= 0 and
ϕ
is nonsingular. Similarly for a basis
{
b
1
,...,b
k
}
for
it extends to abasis
{
b
1
,...,b
k
,b
k
+1
,...,b
n
}
for
. Then a basis for
V/W 
is given by
{
b
k
+1
+
W,...,b
n
+
}
.This basis is mapped to another basis
{
ϕ
(
b
1
) +
W,...,ϕ
(
b
n
) +
}
via the map
ϕ
since
ϕ
is nonsingular. Therefore
ϕ
is an isomorphism and hence
ϕ
is non-singular.However for an infinite dimensional vector space
=
(
R
), which is the set of all continuousfunctions defined over
R
, consider a linear map Ψ :
defined byΨ(
) = 2
.Observe that Ψ is injective,
i.e.
kerΨ =
o
, where
o
:
R
R
denotes the zero function. So Ψis nonsingular. Now let
be the set of all continuous functions
g
defined over
R
, whosesupport is [0
,
1]. Then let
be the set of all continuous functions in
{
o
}
restrictedto [0
,
1]. Then
is a subspace of 
and moreover it is stable under Ψ
|
. ThereforekerΨ
|
=
and Ψ
|
is singular.
11.
Let
ϕ
be a linear transformation form the finite dimensional vector space
to itself such that
ϕ
2
=
ϕ
.(a) Prove that im
ϕ
ker
ϕ
= 0.(b) Prove that
= im
ϕ
ker
ϕ
.(c) Prove that there is a basis of 
such that the matrix of 
ϕ
with respect to this basis is adiagonal matrix whose entries are all 0 or 1.
Proof.
(a) Let
v
im
ϕ
ker
ϕ
be taken arbitrarily. Since
v
im
ϕ
, there exists some
w
so that
v
=
ϕ
(
w
). Moreover
ϕ
(
v
) = 0 since
v
ker
ϕ
. Then
ϕ
2
=
ϕ
implies that
v
=
ϕ
(
w
) =
ϕ
2
(
w
) =
ϕ
(
v
) = 0and thus
v
= 0.(b) It is sufficient to show that
im
ϕ
ker
ϕ
. For every
v
v
=
ϕ
(
v
) + (
v
ϕ
(
v
))and observe that
ϕ
(
v
)
im
ϕ
and
ϕ
(
v
ϕ
(
v
)) =
ϕ
(
v
)
ϕ
2
(
v
) =
ϕ
(
v
)
ϕ
(
v
) = 0.
Abstract Algebr
by Dummit and Foote 3

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