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Friction

# Friction

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08/10/2013

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Experiment 4: FrictionLaboratory Report
Rafael David, Pamela de Leon, Katrina de Vera, Manette DejeloDepartment of Sports ScienceCollege of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Santo TomasEspaña Street, Manila PhilippinesAbstract
Friction is the force between two surfaces rubbing together. In thisexperiment, the area of contact, normal  force, and nature of surfaces in contact werecorrelated with friction. The air resistanceand the effect of lubricant were alsodiscussed.
1.
Introduction
The force of friction is a force thatresists motion when two objects are incontact. The normal force is defined as thenet force compressing two parallel surfacestogether; and its direction is perpendicular tothe surfaces. In the simple case of a massresting on a horizontal surface, the onlycomponent of the normal force is the forcedue to gravity, where N=mg.There are two types of friction: staticfriction and kinetic friction.
Static friction
is the friction experienced when we try tomove a stationary body on a surface, withoutactually causing any relative motion between the body and the surface which it ison. It can be defined as the force of frictionwhich exactly balances the applied forceduring the stationary state of the body.
Kinetic friction
occurs when two objectsare moving relative to each other and rubtogether.
Air resistance
refers to the forcesthat oppose the object in motion. A fallingobject has two forces: gravity downward(mass x 9.8 m/s
2
) and air resistance upward.Together these combine to form the netforce. Isaac Newton tells us that thiscombination of forces must equal mass xacceleration.

Several famous scientists andengineers contributed to our understandingof dry friction.

They include Leonardo daVinci, Guillaume Amontons, JohnDesaguliers, Leonard Euler, and Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. Nikolai Petrovand Osborne Reynolds later supplementedthis understanding with theories of lubrication. A
l
ubricant
is a substanceintroduced between two moving surfaces toreduce the friction between themIn this experiment, the group should be able to achieve the following objectives:(1) to verify the laws of friction (2) and toobserve the effect of air resistance on falling bodies.

2
.
Theory
F
riction is the force between surfacesin contact that resists their relative tangentialmotion. Its velocity is opposite the relativevelocity.
F
orce is the interaction betweentwo physical bodies, such as an object andits environment. It is a push or pull upon anobject resulting from the object's interactionwith another object.
F
orces only exist as aresult of an interaction and it is proportionalto acceleration.The force that result when the twointeracting objects are physically contactingeach other is called the Contact
F
orce whileAction-at-a-distance forces are those typesof forces that result even when the twointeracting objects are not in physicalcontact with each other, and are still able toexert a push or pull despite their physicalseparation.The Laws of
F
riction embodies thediscussion on the force of friction. The firstlaw states that when the surface of twoobjects are in rough contact, and have atendency to move relative to each other,equal and opposite frictional forces act, oneon each of the objects, so as to oppose the potential movement. The second law statesthat until it reaches its limiting value, themagnitude of the frictional force
F
is justsufficient to prevent motion. In the third lawit says that when the limiting value isreached,
F
= uR, where R is the normalreaction between the surfaces and u is thecoefficient of friction for those two surfaces.Law four states that for all rough contacts 0<
F
< IiR and if a contact is smooth a = 0 asstated in the fifth law. Newton¶s first law states that a bodywill continue in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless anexternal force is applied to it. Once an objectis pushed and set in motion it continues tomove in a straight line until some other forceintervenes. Newton¶s second law defines therelationship between force, mass andacceleration.
F
or a body of a particular mass, the bigger the force is, the bigger theacceleration will be and the larger the massis, the larger will be the force needed to produce a particular acceleration. Thisverifies that the force
F
is proportional bothto the acceleration
a
and to the mass
m.

w

ma
Newton¶s third law states that theaction and reaction are equal and opposite.This means that if a body A exerts a force ona body B then B exerts an equal force in theopposite direction on A. This is true whether the two bodies are in contact or are somedistance apart, whether they are moving or are stationary.The force producing the accelerationis the Weight (W). Using
F
= ma gives:
W
= mg
Air friction

is an example of fluidfriction. Unlike the standardmodel of surface friction, such frictionforces are velocity dependent. Air resistanceis approximately proportional to velocity.

Static frictional force is the friction between two objects in contact that are notmoving. Static friction is generally greater than kinetic friction and must be overcome before an object can be set in motion.Kinetic frictional force is when two surfacesare moving with respect to one another.Kinetic friction is generally less than staticfriction. These can be calculated using theequations:The formula for the coefficient of kineticfriction isThe formula for the coefficient of staticfriction is
3
.
Methodo
l
ogy
In Activity 1, a wood block was placed on top of the wood board. A springscale was connected to the wood block by ahook. The minimum force needed to startthe motion of the block by pulling the spring balance was determined. This force isnumerically equal to the maximum staticfriction. The reading of the spring balance as
smax
was recorded. The block was set intomotion by pulling the spring balance. Theforce needed to move the block withconstant velocity was determined. This forceis numerically equal to the kinetic friction.This was recorded as f
. The procedure wasrepeated using the other sides of the block.In Activity 2, the block of wood wasweighed. 100g was added on the block. Thenormal forces were equal to the weight of the block plus the added 100g. Themaximum static friction and kinetic frictionwas determined the same way it wasdetermined in Activity 1. Three more trialswere made and 100g was added in each trial.The results were tabulated. The coefficientof static friction and coefficient of kineticfriction in each trial were determined.In Activity 3, the maximum staticfriction and the kinetic friction weredetermined between wood and wood, woodand tile, wood and sand paper, wood and plastic, and wood and paper.In Activity 4, hands were rubbedtogether for 1 minute. Then the hands were placed on the cheeks. The same activity wasdone but a small amount of lotion was placed on the hands.In Activity 5, a folded paper wasreleased from the air and the terminalvelocity was determined. Another folded paper was added to the first one, and thesame procedure was done. The same processwas repeated till there were five layers of folded paper.