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social adjustment

social adjustment

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Published by Usha Sharma
auther usha sharma
auther usha sharma

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Published by: Usha Sharma on Feb 07, 2011
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01/24/2012

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14.1 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this unit is to introduce you to the concept of social adjustment so that you can help your students adjust in school and society. In Unit 13 you have studied about personal adjustment and emotionalmaturity, and the role of school and the teacher in the process of adjustment. You know that the teacher is thecentral figure in school and classroom. He/she influences the behaviors of students both directly andindirectly. His/her behaviors can also motivate the students to form groups as well as to break up groupsformed on the wrong basis. You will also study the concept of social maturity and its relationship with socialadjustment. The role of teachers in group dynamics is also explained in this unit.
 14.2 OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you should be able to: describe the concept of social adjustment, explain theconcept of social maturity, illustrate how social adjustment promotes good interpersonal relations, state the process of adjustment in the school environment, and explain the teachers' role in group dynamics and socialadjustment. 
14.3 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT
Adjustment is a popular expression used by people in day to day life. For example, whileTraveling in a bus or a train, we often hear or use this term; even when a guest comes to stay with-us for a fewdays we have to adjust him/her in our house. Though sometimes we face problemsThis is the background image for an unknown creator of an OCR page with image plus hidden text. In makingthese adjustments, they are important to maintain personal as well as social peace Social Adjustment andharmony. Thus adjustment maintains peace and harmony in home, school, and society and in the country.Social adjustment can be defined as a psychological process. It frequently involves coping with new standardsand values. In the technical language of psychology, getting along with the members of the society as best asone can is called adjustment.
14.3.1 Nature of Social Adjustment
As social beings we live in a society, we form opinions about others and others have opinions about us.Everybody wants acceptance and recognition from and within society. We try to behave according to thenorms of the society so that we can adjust with others. But it is not an easy task as the personality of eachindividual is a unique organization. This organization has to make special efforts to adjust with others uniqueorganizations, which we call society. Actually adjustment is a wider term used in various spheres of life. For example, if an individual is well- adjusted in his family environment, his family adjustment will be good. So before defining social adjustment it is necessary for us to restrict the area of social adjustment. In other wordswe can say that social adjustment is the direction we, the teachers, try to instill adjustment skill in our students. As teachers we should emphasize on the adjustment of the student in the school. It is the teacher'sresponsibility to help the student cope with the existing situations of the school. For this we should contributeto improving the social environment of the school.Psychologists use the term adjustment of varying conditions of social and interpersonal relations in thesociety. Thus we see that adjustment means reaction to the demands and pressures of the social environmentimposed upon the individual. Whenever two types of demands come into conflict with each other andresultant in an adjustment being made, a complicated process for the individual, then some special problemsof adjustment arise.
14.3.2 Perception and Social Adjustment
Impartial perception is needed for social adjustment. The processes of behaviour e.g. learning, maturation,sensation, perception and motivation are significant in our life because they con- tribute to the process of adjustment. The way we interact with people depends to a great extent upon how we perceive them and howwe interpret their behaviour. The perceptions about people what we think, what they are like -influence theway we respond to them. If you perceive that a student is hostile, you are unlikely to interact or adjust withhim/her. Your behaviour in a group is certainly different from the behaviour when in alone. Group affects anindividual's behaviour. The mere presence of others affects our performance.How do we come to know about
 
other people? Our social perceptions of others are initially based on the information we obtain about them -insome instances the attribution (inferences) we make about the causes for their behaviour. It is, of course,important to have accurate knowledge of others before deciding on the kind of possible interactions withthem. Our perceptions of others' personalities and feelings guide us in deciding the way we respond to themand what sort of relationships we have with them. Knowledge about others influences our adjustment withthem. 
14.3.3 Impression Formation and Socia1.Adjustment
We shall first discuss 'impression' as a cognitive process. Impression formation is the process by whichinformation about others is converted into more or less enduring cognition or thoughts about them. When wefirst meet someone, we usually have access to information how the person looks and where he/she works andwhat he/she says. These categories and their perceived interrelationship form the basic cognitive framework  by which we understand others and try to adjust with them.
14.3.4 Other Processes in Social Adjustment
There are certain other processes we can use for social adjustment. Let us discuss the mainProcesses in thefollowing paragraphs.i) Stress and adaptation: The efforts to live and be satisfied are called adaptation:Environmental factors which make it hard for an individual to live are called stress. AtThis is the background image for an unknown creator of an OCR page with image plus hidden text.Facilitating Learning and Development the most elementary level of life, stress is experienced as irritation or discomfort A, a slightly more advanced level, stress is explained as the anticipation of harm. In human beingscertain kinds of stresses produce anxiety. Anxiety sometimes produces defensive response which is mentalefforts to reduce stresses. Defenses are generally regarded as poor methods of adjustment. Actuallyadjustment means reduction of tension or satisfaction of motives.ii) Social influence: The process of social influence contains two critical elements-(a) Some one's intervention, and (b) inducing change in other person. The FP (Focal Per-Son) is one who isinfluenced by the source of intervention is termed as the agent. The Following table classifies agents, types of intervention and related concepts.Table 14.1: Intervention by an agent to bring about influence
Adolescent social competence: An examination of social skills, social performance, and socialadjustment with urban minority youth.
Author(s): Nichols, Tracy RoseTitle:Adolescent social competence: An examination of social skills, social performance, and social adjustment with urban minority youth.Advisor(s):Brooks-Gunn, JeanneIssue Date: 2002Description:Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 63-03, Section: B, page:1589.Sponsor: Jeanne Brooks-Gunn.Thesis (Ph.D.)--Columbia University, 2002.Full Text(ProQuest):/ac/proxit.jsp?url=http://gateway.proquest.com/ope...Abstract: While extensive research has been conducted on normative social competence inearly childhood, far less has been done for adolescence. Previous research has notconceptually differentiated among the ability to achieve social markers, performeffectively, or develop underlying skills. Consequently divergent methodologieshave been employed and inconsistent results have emerged across studies. Thisstudy explores the application of Cavell's (1990) tri-component model of social
 
competence to urban minority adolescents.Three hypotheses are tested: (a) skills will be associated with adjustment and performance but the relative importance will differ by outcome; (b) dominantresponse types used in social situations will differ by subgroups; (c) groupdifferences by dominant response type will exist for performance and adjustment.The study uses a multi-method approach with 476 minority 6th graders attending public and parochial schools in New York City as part of a larger prevention trial.Adjustment is measured with pro-social outcomes (academic achievement andself-esteem) and engagement in problem behaviors (delinquency, aggression,fighting). Performance is measured with four peer situations: two role-play tasks(Social Confrontation and Peer Negotiation) and two hypothetical vignettes (Peer Rejection and Peer Insult). Social skills are assessed with both self-report andobservational methods and include cognitive skills (decision-making and self-reinforcement), emotion regulation skills (anger management and self-regulation)and social interaction skills (assertiveness, passivity, and aggression).Results show competence among adolescents to vary by several factors includingthe component of competence measured, the context of the interaction and themethodology utilized. In addition, social skills were associated with bothadjustment and performance, although most measures of performance wereassociated with interaction skills only. Differences did not exist in dominantresponse types by subgroups but partial support was found for the importance of dominant response type for both adjustment and performance.This study illustrates the importance of assessing multiple components of competence as well as using multiple methods of assessment. It also speaks to theneed to distinguish between assertive, aggressive, and passive enactmentresponses in both assessment and treatment. Overall the study introduces severalnew measures of competence within context that may prove helpful to the field of adolescent development.Collection(s):Doctoral Dissertationsappeared to result only when they were unable to locate other sources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008APA, all rights reserved)
Program Outcomes for Children
 
PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OUTCOMESIntroduction and Conceptual Overview
Most adults want the children they care about to enjoy the benefits of supportive social relationshipsthroughout their lives, and to acquire the necessary competencies to do so. Social competence,like social adjustment, is often used as an umbrella term to include various aspects of a child'sperformance in social contexts. Those who design and provide programs for preschoolers andschool-aged children in group settings often seek to enhance aspects of personal and socialadjustment, either as a primary outcome or as a valued by-product of other program activities(Hauser-Cram & Shonkoff, 1988; Ysseldyke & Thurlow, 1993).Link to NCEO Personal and Social Adjustment Model
 

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