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Mining Methods in Australia

Mining Methods in Australia

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Published by Paritosh Birla

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Published by: Paritosh Birla on Feb 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/17/2012

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Presentation titlePage 1
Open-Cut Mining
Used when:
Ore body is less than 200 metres below the surface i.e. oreis nearer to the surface and overburden layer is thin.
Ore and surrounding waste rock are mined at the same time & separatedlater 
Mining method:
Explosives
Front end loaders / Electric Shovels
Loading into Dumpers
Crushed using Primary Crusher 
Mining is not feasible when:
Extraction becomes costlier due to increasing ratio of overburden to ore
Greater difficulty in mining the ore
Concepts:
Walls of the pit are generally dug on an angle less than vertical, to preventand minimize damage and danger from rock falls.
The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as thebatter, and the flat part of the step is known as the bench or perm.
Waste rock is piled up at the surface, near the edge of the open pit. This isknown as the waste dump. The waste dump is also tiered and stepped, tominimize degradation.
Ore which has been processed is known as tailings, and is generally aslurry. This is pumped to a tailings dam or settling pond, where the water evaporates.
Commonly mistaken with:
Strip Mining, Borrows,Placers, Quarries. Mines producing buildingmaterial and dimension stone referred to as‘Quarries’
Mineral extracted using this method:
Coal andextensively in "hard rock" mining for ores such asmetal ores, copper, gold, iron, aluminum.
Adopted by:
Australia, Bulgaria, Chile, Columbia,Indonesia, Peru, Portugal, Russia, South Africa,UK, US, Zambia.
India Status:
Used by?
 
Presentation titlePage 2
StripMining/SurfaceMining
Strip mining is a type of surface mining that involves excavating earth, rock,and other material to uncover a tabular, lens-shaped, or layered mineralreserve.
Used when:
Ore bodies are located close to the Earth’s surface.
Mining Method:
Seam of mineral is mined by removing the overburden
Machines like bucket wheel excavators, draglines, stripping shovels are used alongwith explosives to move the overburden.
The extraction of the overburden is done in rectangular blocks called pits or strips.
The pits are parallel and adjacent to each other with each strip of overburden andthe mineral beneath extracted sequentially.
The mining process involves moving the overburden laterally to the adjacent emptypit where the mineral has been extracted
This movement is called
casting
or 
open casting
Has two forms:
Area Stripping : Used on relatively flat terrain to extract deposits.
Contour Stripping: Here the overburden is removed above the mineral seam near the outcrop in hilly terrain, where the mineral outcrop usually follows the contour of the land.
Strip mining is used to extract materials of sedimentary origin like coal andtar sand.
An advantage of this method is that the adjacent pits are filled with theoverburden which ensures reclamation of mined land.
A pictorial representation of atypical strip mine
 
Presentation titlePage 3
StripMining/SurfaceMining
.
Mineral extracted using this method:
Coal andtar sand
Adopted by:
Australia
India Status:
Used by?

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