Apodictic “Command” unconditional command with norestriction. “You Shall Not.”
ii. Casuistic Conditional set as a guideline. Cites a specific case,
specific problem. “If you… I will…”
4. The Laws were Para dynamic by nature:i. Ancient laws were paradigmatic, not exhaustive. We try to beexhaustive with modern law. Not the ancients. They realized you
can’t cover every situation so they gave guiding principles. For
example, if a man attempts to break into your house and murderyour family you have the right to defend yourself even by killingthe invader. However, if the intruder escapes out the window and
dies on the lawn he “technically” was murdered on your lawn
rather than you defending yourself in your home. Also if acriminal appears in court and no one shows up to testify againsthim or her, they are let go. There were no such loop holes ortechnicalities in the laws of the ANE.ii. Justice:aa. General E. Lee. There once was a soldier sitting outside
General Lee’s tent during
the civil war. He was trembling.
A man saw him and said, “Don’t worry son, you’ll find justice in there.” The young man replied “That’s why i'mtrembling sir.” God is a just God. He never gives up his
love for his justice nor his justice for his love. The lawmust be satisfied. It is perfect and absolute.B. Ex. 20:1-
2 “Preamble and Prologue”
And God spoke all these words:
"I am the LORD your God,who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.1. This verse emphasizes who is giving the commandsa.
“God spoke all these words,” not man.
2. It also reminds us of how Israel and YHWH came to be in this relationshipa.
Vs. 2 “
Who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of Slavery”
There are no “commands or laws” in the o
riginal language. Rather god
spoke “all these words”
4. Ancient Near Eastern Law Codes:a. Two things reigned in the Ancient Near East. Covenants and LawCodes.i. The Difference between a covenant and a law codeaa. A covenants purpose was to create a newrelationship. (In this case, God, through hiscovenant with Abraham was in relationship with
Israel and brought them “out of the land of slavery”
as he promised.