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Dictionar en-ro Termeni Juridici

Dictionar en-ro Termeni Juridici

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Published by: ratatouille_2007 on Feb 08, 2011
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04/07/2013

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A-B TRUST
See bypass trust.
ABANDONMENT
1. The act of giving up some right or interest with the intent of never claiming it again.2. In the Family Law, the act of leaving a spouse or children willfully and without intentto return.
ABET
1. To encourage and assist (someone), esp. in the commission of a crime 'abet a knownfelon'. 2. To support (a crime) by active assistance 'abet a robbery'.
ABSTENTION
A Federal Court's relinquishment of jurisdiction over a case to avoid needless conflictwith a State's administration of its own affairs.
ABSTRACT OF JUDGEMENT
a copy or summary of a judgment that, when filed with the appropriate public office,creates a lien on the judgment debtor's nonexempt property.
ABSTRACT OF RECORD
A short, abbreviated form of the case as found in the record.
ABSTRACT OF TITLE
A concise statement, usu. Prepared for a mortgage or purchaser of real property,summarizing the history of a piece of land, including all conveyances, interests, liensand encumbrances that affect title to the land.
ACCESSION
Adding on. In civil law, the right to all that one's property produces, not just the propertyitself.
ACCESSORY 
A person who assists in the commission of a crime, either before or after the fact.
ACQUITTAL
A verdict in a criminal trial in which the defendant is found not guilty of the charge.
ACTION IN PERSONAM
An action against the person, founded on personal liability, in contrast to action in rem,an action for the recovery of a specific object, usually an item of personal property suchas an automobile.
ACTUAL MALICE
 
 To win a defamation suit, public officials or prominent people, such as politicalcandidates or movie stars, must prove that the offender made a false statement withactual malice. This means the statement was made with knowledge that it was false orwith serious doubts about whether it was true.
AD QUOD DAMNUM
A writ causing an evaluation of damages that might result from someone's actions.Example: you wish to dam a creek on your land to power a mill. The pond may damageanother's land.
ADJOURNMENT IN CONTEMPLATION OF DISMISSAL
See pre-trial diversion.
ADJUDICATION
Giving or pronouncing a judgment or decree, or the rendering of a decision on a matterbefore a court.
ADMINISTRATOR
Person appointed to oversee the handling of an estate when there is no will.
ADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE
Evidence which can legally and properly be used in court.
ADMISSION
A statement tending to establish the guilt or liability of the person making thestatement.
ADVANCE DIRECTIVE
see living will .
ADVERSARY SYSTEM
 The system of trial practice in the United States and some other countries in which eachof the opposing, or adversary, parties has the opportunity to present and establishopposing contentions before the court.
ADVERSE POSSESSION
Gaining title to another's land by exercising the rights of ownership of that landunchallenged for a period of time, typically on the order of five to ten years, andmeeting other requirements (as set by each state). See seizing.
AFFIDAVIT
A written and sworn statement witnessed by a notary public or another officialpossessing the authority to administer oaths. Affidavits may be admitted into evidence.
AGE OF MAJORITY 
 The age when a person acquires all the rights and responsibilities of being an adult. Inmost states, the age is 18.
AGENT
One who has authority to act for another.
 
ALIBI
A defense claim that the accused was somewhere else at the time a crime wascommitted.
ALIEN
 To transfer (lands, title) to another.
ALIENATION
A transfer of title or property to another.
ALIMONY 
Also called maintenance or spousal support. In a divorce or separation, the money paidby one spouse to the other in order to fulfill the financial obligation that comes withmarriage.
ALLEGATION
 The assertion, declaration, or statement of a party to an action, made in a pleading,establishing what the party expects to prove.
ALODIUM
Land owned independently, without rent or other obligation to another. See FreeholdEstate. The alodial (also 'allodial') system is opposed to the feudal system.
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR)
Methods of resolving disputes outside of official court proceedings. These methodsinclude mediation arbitration, and conciliation.
AMICUS CURIAE
Latin for "friend of the court." Refers to a party that is allowed to provide information(usually in the form of a legal brief) to a court even though the party is not directlyinvolved in the case at hand.
ANNUAL REVIEW
 Yearly judicial review, usually in juvenile dependency cases, to determine whether thechild requires continued court supervision or placement.
ANNULMENT
A legal decree that states that a marriage was never valid. Has the legal effect of wipingout a marriage as though it never existed.
ANSWER
In a civil case, the defendant's written response to the plaintiff's complaint. It must befiled within a specified period of time, and it either admits to or (more typically) deniesthe factual or legal basis for liability.
APPEAL
A request to a supervisory court usually composed of a panel of judges, to overturn thelegal ruling of a lower court.
APPELLANT
 The litigant who brings the appeal.

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