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UNDP Slope Stabilization

UNDP Slope Stabilization

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The use of advanced polymers for slope stabilization is a fact that is furthered by using the concept of Hydro Seed Mulching to provide a rapid greening for slope stabilization
The use of advanced polymers for slope stabilization is a fact that is furthered by using the concept of Hydro Seed Mulching to provide a rapid greening for slope stabilization

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Published by: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan on Feb 08, 2011
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http//:www.khidmat.sdnpk.org http//:www.huq-such.org Cell: 03015456088Works: Behind Ammad Marble Factory, Near Buffa Doraha, Silk Route, Mansehra, NWFPKhidmat Markaz, QadirNagar, near Village Katto Ka Thattha, PO, Khairpur Bhattian, Tehsil & District
 
 Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Pakistan
For The Cause That Lacks Assistance! For The Wrong That Needs Resistance!
 
And For The Good That We Can Do!
 
03-07-2007IslamabadTo : The Coordinator Environmental Recovery ProgrammeUNDPSubject:
SLOPE STABALIZATION:
 Sir,
INTRODUCTION:
I represent a Bioenvironmental Approach to Sustainable Development and amheading a small, yet effective R&D NGO (Registered) that is operating in the field of SustainableDevelopment for the last 20 years. We have made remarkable breakthroughs in the fields of Agri/Horticulture Yields Enhancement; Liquid & Solid Waste Management; Low-Cost Environment
 
Protected/ Earth Quake Housing; Alternate Energy Water Pumping and Soil Conservation.
BACKGROUND:
The hallmark of management is to perceive threats and take timely measures toavert them. In this regard, I wish to bring to your attention a matter of deep concern. It has beenobserved that in some areas of Muzaffarabad District, Mountain sides, denuded of Forest cover, havesuffered from
 SLOPE DESTABALIZATION!
During discussions with relevant Forest and MilitaryAuthorities it was discovered that a step called
GREEN STABALIZATION 
has been taken toovercome expected further land slides that would have harmful affects upon the strategic road linking
 
Garhi Habibullah and Muzaffarabad. As I have not had an opportunity to survey the entire Earth Quakeaffected Area, I am not in a position to say whether similar destabilization has occurred elsewhere.It is my firm belief that denuded slopes were the worst hit localities during the tragic quake and hadresulted in wiping out entire villages unfortunate enough to have been located below such slopes. In
 
case there are any populated areas below similarly affected slopes they too will be in danger of further landslides.3.
PROBLEM STATEMENT:
The advent of the monsoon rains will prove to be disastrous for suchdestabilized slopes as Green Stabilization, while a fine concept has to take into consideration the longlead time required for Trees to establish themselves before they can successfully exercise their inbuilt
 
ability to hold the soil in place. Secondly, trees are planted under wet conditions, either during or after rains. Due to this factor the trees roots spread in a more lateral than horizontal manner. It is only at theadvent of dry conditions that rooting hormones are produced within the system to signal the
 
requirement of deep penetration requirement of the roots in order to tap additional sources of moisture.This results in further time lag in establishing a deep root system.These two facts when taken together have led me to the conclusion that there is a dire need for immediate measures to mitigate the foreseen problem.4.
SOLUTIONS:
Scientific advances and our own on-ground trials have proven solutions that will
 
 prove to be effective in this regard. There are three recommendations for maximization of impact andensuring a complete solution to a perceived threat.Polyacrylamide (PAM):Rooting & Fruiting Hormones (Natural Extract from Seaweed).
 
Hydroseeding.
4.1 Polyacrylamide (PAM):
Polyacrylamide is a new generation of chemicals introducedcommercially in the United States only in the last eleven years. The organic components of  polyacrylamide were developed to chemically control erosive forces at the molecular level by holding
 
soils in place and ionically bonding them together to increase the particle size. This results is increasedwater infiltration through the particle spaces and decreased erodibility of the soil particles.PAM seeks out and binds to the broken edges of soil particles, which carry a negative charge. Byincreasing the cohesiveness of soil particles on the soil surface of a field, PAM makes soil more
 
resistant to the highly erosive shear forces exerted by water flowing over it. It takes very little PAM todramatically cut erosion and increase infiltration. Just 10 parts per million (ppm) added to theadvancing stream can reduce erosion by 70-99%. If there is a significant amount of sediment suspended
 
in the water supply, PAM will cause it to flocculate and settle out almost immediately.Extract from:
POLYACRYLAMIDE AS A SOIL STABILIZER FOR EROSIONCONTROL
FINAL REPORT # WI-06-98 New Product Evaluation # PE-97-06 Prepared By:Kenneth N. Nwankwo, P.E. Technology Advancement Engineer Wisconsin Department of Transportation,Division of Transportation Infrastructure DevelopmentBureau of Highway ConstructionJanuary 2001
 
The Technology Advancement Unit of the Division of Transportation Infrastructure Development,
 
 Bureau of Highway Construction, conducts and manages the highway technology advancemen program of the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. The Federal Highway Administration provides financial and technical assistance for these activities, including review and approval of 
 
 publications.
 “The performance of polyacrylamide in controlling erosion is based on the fact that it is a flocculant. Itforms ionic bonds of smaller soil particles together to make larger particles. This makes the soil moreresistant to the erosive forces of dispersion and shear. Further, the polyacrylamide enhances the
 
intrusion of water into the soil, resulting in increased soil moisture to promote seed germination, lower runoff, and less soil detachment from erosion. Comparison of the polyacrylamide (PAM) with other erosion control products that are currently used by Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT)
 
shows that this product is effective in controlling erosion. In addition, it is relatively inexpensive whencompared to erosion mat, very easily applied, is not affected by weather conditions, and when appliedfollowing the manufacture’s recommendations is environmentally safe.”The above extract warrants immediate trials of the product in order to ensure that further damage is notdone to an already fractured landscape.4.2
Rooting & Fruiting Hormones Seed Pre-Treatment:
GIBBERELLINS: Gibberellins cause enlargement of cell walls, particularly internode cells and somefruit cells. They cause breaking of dormancy, move freely in the plant and are produced in the roots andnew leaves.CYTOKININS: Cytokinins are produced in the root tips and are carried upwards in the xylem tissue.
 
They loose concentration as they move towards the leaves. Cytokinins affect cell division.Hormones are produced in some organs and move to other organs to change their characteristics. For instance, in wheat early growth is dominated by Gibberellins, the middle stage by Cytokinins and thelater stages by Auxins.
HORMONE INTERACTION:Root Initiation:
High Cytokinin/ Auxin rates develop shoot growth. It reduces the Auxin+ IAA effect.The above ratios inhibit shoot growth of roots towards the tip. When Cytokinins are lower back fromthe root tip, branch roots will grow. When Auxin rates get really high, adventitious roots will appear from the stem.The hormone balance of the plant is responsible for dictating its response to environment factors. Thisis of prime importance and the major factor for maximum economic yield if response is adequate.Good nutrition is essential for the health of the plant but will fail to provide the desired results in case a plant is unable to use this nutrition. The size, shape and yield of a plant depend upon hormone balance.Fertilizer nutrients do affect this balance but the major factor is the climate. With changes in climatethe hormone balance of the plant is altered. This is more in some varieties of plants and less in others.This is dictated by the genetics of that particular plant. It is possible to change the
Genetic Expression
of a plant so that it can quickly adjust to climate change. Thus it is not essential to change the basicGenetics of a plant, which is quite an expensive proposition. By modifying the genetic expression of a plant we can weather proof it and ensure that climate change has less impact. Since the last many years,

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