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Table Of Contents

2.3 Generalisedscatteringparameters
2.4.1 Examples of S-parameter matrices
2.5 Cascadeparameters
2.6 Renormalisationof S-parameters
2.7 De-embeddingof S-parameters
2.8 Characteristicimpedance
2.8.1 Characteristic impedance in real transmission lines
2.8.2 Characteristic impedance in non-TEM waveguides
2.8.3 Measurement of Z0
2.9 Signal flowgraphs
2.A Reciprocity
2.B Losslessness
2.C Two-port transforms
Further reading
3.1 Introduction
3.2.1 RF mismatch errors and uncertainty
3.2.2 Directivity
3.2.3 Test port match
3.2.4 RF connector repeatability
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Coaxial line sizes
4.2 Connector repeatability
4.2.1 Handling of airlines
4.2.2 Assessment of connector repeatability
4.3 Coaxial connector specifications
4.4.1 Gauging connectors
4.5 Connector cleaning
4.5.1 Cleaning procedure
4.5.2 Cleaning connectors on static sensitive devices
4.6 Connector life
4.7 Adaptors
4.8 Connector recession
4.9 Conclusions
4.A Appendix A
4.B Appendix B
4.C Appendix C
4.D Appendix D
4.E Appendix E
Attenuationmeasurement
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Basicprinciples
5.3 Measurement systems
5.3.1 Power ratio method
5.3.2 Voltage ratio method
5.3.3 The inductive voltage divider
5.3.4 AF substitution method
5.3.5 IF substitution method
5.3.6 RF substitution method
5.3.7 The automatic network analyser
5.4.1 Mismatch uncertainty
5.4.2 RF leakage
5.4.3 Detector linearity
5.4.4 Detector linearity measurement uncertainty budget
5.4.5 System resolution
5.4.6 System noise
5.4.7 Stability and drift
5.4.8 Repeatability
5.4.9 Calibration standard
5.5.1 Contributions to measurement uncertainty
References
6.1 Introduction
6.2 RF voltagemeasuringinstruments
6.2.1 Wideband AC voltmeters
6.2.2 Fast sampling and digitising DMMs
6.2.3 RF millivoltmeters
6.2.4 Sampling RF voltmeters
6.2.5 Oscilloscopes
6.2.6 Switched input impedance oscilloscopes
6.2.7 Instrument input impedance effects
6.2.8 Source loading and bandwidth
6.3 AC andRF/microwavetraceability
6.3.1 Thermal converters and micropotentiometers
6.4.1 Uncertainty analysis considerations
6.4.2 Example: Oscilloscope bandwidth test
6.4.3 Harmonic content errors
6.4.4 Example: Oscilloscope calibrator calibration
6.4.5 RF millivoltmeter calibration
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Coaxial lines
7.3 Rectangular waveguides
7.4 Ridgedwaveguide
7.5 Microstrip
7.6 Slot guide
7.7 Coplanar waveguide
7.8 Finline
7.9 Dielectricwaveguide
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Typesof noise
8.2.1 Thermal noise
8.2.2 Shot noise
8.2.3 Flicker noise
8.3 Definitions
8.4.1 Thermal noise sources
8.4.2 The temperature-limited diode
8.4.3 Gas discharge tubes
8.4.4 Avalanche diode noise sources
8.5 Measuringnoise
8.5.1 The total power radiometer
8.5.2 Radiometer sensitivity
8.6 Measurement accuracy
8.6.1 Cascaded receivers
8.6.2 Noise from passive two-ports
8.7 Mismatcheffects
8.7.1 Measurement of receivers and amplifiers
8.8 Automatednoisemeasurements
8.8.1 Noise figure meters or analysers
8.8.2 On-wafer measurements
8.9 Conclusion
Acknowledgements
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Historical perspective
9.2.1 Coaxial connectors
9.2.2 Coaxial air lines
9.2.3 RF impedance
9.3 Connectors
9.3.1 Types of coaxial connector
9.3.2 Mechanical characteristics
9.3.3 Electrical characteristics
9.4 Air lines
9.4.1 Types of precision air line
9.4.2 Air line standards
9.4.3 Conductor imperfections
9.5 RF impedance
9.5.1 Air lines
9.5.2 Terminations
9.6 Futuredevelopments
Appendix: 7/16connectors
Microwavenetwork analysers
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Referenceplane
10.2.1 Elements of a microwave network analyser
10.3 Network analyser block diagram
RFIC andMMIC measurement techniques
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Test fixturemeasurements
11.2.1 Two-tier calibration
11.2.2 One-tier calibration
11.2.3 Test fixture design considerations
11.3 Probestationmeasurements
11.3.1 Passive microwave probe design
11.3.2 Probe calibration
11.3.3 Measurement errors
11.3.4 DC biasing
11.3.5 MMIC layout considerations
11.3.6 Low-cost multiple DC biasing technique
11.3.7 Upper-millimetre-wave measurements
11.4 Thermal andcryogenicmeasurements
11.4.1 Thermal measurements
11.4.2 Cryogenic measurements
11.5 Experimental fieldprobingtechniques
11.5.1 Electromagnetic-field probing
11.5.2 Magnetic-field probing
11.5.3 Electric-field probing
11.6 Summary
12.7 Calibrationof avector network analyser
12.8 Accuracyenhancement
12.8.1 What causes measurement errors?
12.8.2 Directivity
12.8.3 Source match
12.8.4 Load match
12.8.5 Isolation (crosstalk)
12.8.6 Frequency response (tracking)
12.9 Characterisingmicrowavesystematicerrors
12.9.1 One-port error model
12.10 One-port devicemeasurement
12.11 Two-port error model
12.12 TRL calibration
12.12.1 TRL terminology
12.12.2 True TRL/LRL
12.12.3 The TRL calibration procedure
12.13 Data-basedcalibrations
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Definitionof verification
13.3 Typesof verification
13.3.1 Verification of error terms
13.3.2 Verification of measurements
13.4 Calibrationscheme
13.5 Error termverification
13.5.1 Effective directivity
13.5.2 Effective source match
13.5.3 Effective load match
13.5.4 Effective isolation
13.5.5 Transmission and reflection tracking
13.5.6 Effective linearity
13.6 Verificationof measurements
13.6.1 Customised verification example
13.6.2 Manufacturer supplied verification example
14.1 Introduction
14.1.1 Physical background of differential structures
14.2 Characterisationof balancedstructures
14.2.2 Characterisation using physical transformers
14.2.3 Modal decomposition method
14.2.4 Mixed-mode-S-parameter-matrix
14.2.5 Characterisation of single-ended to balanced devices
14.2.6 Typical measurements
14.3 Measurement examples
14.3.1 Example 1: Differential through connection
14.3.2 Example 2: SAW-filter measurement
14.4 (De)Embeddingfor balanceddevicecharacterisation
Further Reading
RF power measurement
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Theory
15.2.1 Basic theory
15.2.2 Mismatch uncertainty
15.3 Power sensors
15.3.2 Diode sensors
15.3.3 Thermistors and other bolometers
15.3.4 Calorimeters
15.3.5 Force and field based sensors
15.3.6 Acoustic meter
15.4 Power measurementsandcalibration
15.4.1 Direct power measurement
15.4.2 Uncertainty budgets
15.5 Calibrationandtransfer standards
15.5.1 Ratio measurements
15.6 Power splitters
15.6.1 Typical power splitter properties
15.6.2 Measurement of splitter output match
15.6.3 The direct method of measuring splitter output
15.7 Couplersandreflectometers
15.7.1 Reflectometers
15.8 Pulsedpower
15.9 Conclusion
15.10 Acknowledgements
16.1 Part 1: Introduction
16.1.1 Signal analysis using a spectrum analyser
16.1.2 Measurement domains
16.1.3 The oscilloscope display
16.1.4 The spectrum analyser display
16.1.5 Analysing an amplitude-modulated signal
16.2 Part 2: Howthespectrumanalyser works
16.2.1 Basic spectrum analyser block diagram
16.2.2 Microwave spectrum analyser with harmonic mixer
16.2.3 The problem of multiple responses
16.2.5 Effect of the preselector
16.2.6 Microwave spectrum analyser block diagram
16.2.7 Spectrum analyser with tracking generator
16.3 Part 3: Spectrumanalyser important specificationpoints
Figure16.15 Input attenuator and IF gain controls
16.3.1 The input attenuator and IF gain controls
16.3.2 Sweep speed control
16.3.3 Resolution bandwidth
16.3.4 Shape factor of the resolution filter
16.3.5 Video bandwidth controls
16.3.6 Measuring low-level signals – noise
16.3.7 Dynamic range
16.3.8 Amplitude accuracy
16.3.9 Effect of input VSWR
16.3.10 Sideband noise characteristics
16.3.11 Residual responses
16.3.12 Residual FM
16.3.13 Uncertainty contributions
16.3.14 Display detection mode
16.4 Spectrumanalyser applications
16.4.1 Measurement of harmonic distortion
16.4.2 Example of a tracking generator measurement
16.4.3 Zero span
16.4.4 The use of zero span
16.4.5 Meter Mode
16.4.6 Intermodulation measurement
16.4.7 Intermodulation analysis
16.4.8 Intermodulation intercept point
16.4.10 Amplitude modulation
16.4.11 AM spectrum with modulation distortion
16.4.12 Frequency modulation
16.4.13 FM measurement using the Bessel zero method
16.4.14 FM demodulation
16.4.15 FM demodulation display
16.4.16 Modulation asymmetry – combined AM and FM
16.4.17 Spectrum of a square wave
16.4.18 Pulse modulation
16.4.19 Varying the pulse modulation conditions
16.4.20 ‘Line’ and ‘Pulse’ modes
16.4.22 EMC measurements
16.4.23 Overloading a spectrum analyser
16.5 Conclusion
17.5 Quadraturetechnique
17.6 FM discriminator method
17.7 Measurement uncertaintyissues
17.8 Futuremethodof measurements
17.9 Summary
18.1 Introduction
18.3 Basicdielectricmeasurement theory
18.3.1 Lumped-impedance methods
18.3.2 Wave methods
18.3.3 Resonators, cavities and standing-wave methods
18.3.4 The frequency coverage of measurement techniques
18.4 Lossprocesses: conduction,dielectricrelaxation,resonances
18.5 International standardmeasurement methodsfor dielectrics
18.7.1 Electronic instrumentation: sources and detectors
18.7.2 Measurement cells
18.7.3 Q-factor and its measurement
18.9 A surveyof measurement methods
18.9.2 Resonant admittance cells and their derivatives
18.9.3 TE01-mode cavities
18.9.4 Split-post dielectric resonators
18.9.5 Substrate methods, including ring resonators
18.9.6 Coaxial and waveguide transmission lines
18.9.8 Dielectric resonators
18.9.9 Free-field methods
18.9.10 The resonator perturbation technique
18.9.11 Open-resonators
18.9.12 Time domain techniques
18.11 Further information
19.2.2 Three-antenna method
19.3 Antennafactors
19.3.1 Measurement of free-space AFs
19.3.2 The calculable dipole antenna
19.3.5 Calibration of hybrid antennas
19.3.6 Calibration of rod antennas
19.3.7 Calibration of loop antennas
19.3.8 Other antenna characteristics
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