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Table Of Contents

A.I The gcd and B´ezout
A.II Two Divisibility Theorems
A.III Unique Factorization
A.IV Residue Classes, Congruences
A.V Order, Little Fermat, Euler
A.VI A Brief Account of RSA
Congruences. The CRT
B.I The Chinese Remainder Theorem
B.II Euler’s Phi Function Revisited
* B.III General CRT
B.IV Application to Algebraic Congruences
B.V Linear Congruences
B.VI Congruences Modulo a Prime
B.VII Modulo a Prime Power
Primitive Roots
C.I False Cases Excluded
C.II Primitive Roots Modulo a Prime
C.III Binomial Congruences
C.IV Prime Powers
C.V The Carmichael Exponent
* C.VI Pseudorandom Sequences
C.VII Discrete Logarithms
* C.VIII Computing Discrete Logarithms
Quadratic Reciprocity
D.I The Legendre Symbol
D.II The Jacobi Symbol
D.III A Cryptographic Application
D.IV Gauß’ Lemma
D.V The “Rectangle Proof”
D.VI Gerstenhaber’s Proof
* D.VII Zolotareff’s Proof
Some Diophantine Problems
E.I Primes as Sums of Squares
E.II Composite Numbers
E.III Another Diophantine Problem
E.IV Modular Square Roots
E.V Applications
Multiplicative Functions
F.I Definitions and Examples
F.II The Dirichlet Product
F.III M¨obius Inversion
* F.IV Two More Results
F.V Primitive Roots, Again
F.VI A Combinatorial Application
F.VII The Sum of Divisors
F.VIII Cyclotomic Polynomials
Continued Fractions
G.I Motive, Definitions
G.II Basic Theorems
* G.III Negative Irrationalities
G.IV Best Rational Approximation
G.V Where Are the “Continued Fractions”?
G.VI Finite Continued Fractions
G.VII Cornacchia’s Algorithm
“QCF” and Pell’s Equation
H.I An Algorithm for Quadratic Irrational-
H.II Conjugates
H.V Inequalities
H.VI Periodicity
* H.VII Periodicity, Continued
J.I Matrix Notation
J.II Equivalent Quadratic Irrationalities
J.III Equivalence and Continued Fractions
* J.IV An Alternative Approach
J.V Reciprocal Expansions
J.VI Selfreciprocity, Partial Quotients
J.VII Symmetry of the Pk,Qk
* J.VIII Moving Forward One Period
* J.IX Running a Period Backwards
* J.X More on Pell-Like Equations
Z[i], Other Number Rings
K.I Preparations
K.II Unique Factorization in Z[i]
K.III The Number of Representations
Primality and Factorization
L.I Introduction
L.II Special Numbers, Special Factors
L.III Trial Division
L.IV Lists of Primes
L.V Fast Exponentiation
L.VI Primality: Fermat and Miller-Rabin
L.IX Factoring, Pollard rho
L.X “Waiting For a Square”
L.XIII Quadratic Sieve
L.XIV Lucas Sequences and Primality
L.XV Mersenne Numbers
L.XVI Lucas and Modular Square Roots
L.XVII Scalar Formulas
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Published by بهيه جلال

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Published by: بهيه جلال on Feb 08, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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