Published on 3 September 2008
By Laurie Wiegler
Unlike in most parts of Europe, it was another hot summer in the US.
looks at the state of air-conditioning engineering in theStates and elsewhere in the world.Summer in the US north-east may bring to mind rugged men sailing through the Cape, tanned cherubs building sandcastles or soft-shell crabs plucked fresh from the sea. But for those of us living here, the images belie a far less glamorous reality – thewretched heat and humidity.In May, a heatwave hit southeastern Connecticut, causing many to worry that this could be a harbinger of yet another, perhaps evenmore dreadful, summer. The problem was much more acute for anyone struggling through the season without a proper air conditioner. I was one of those people.But as temperatures soared above 39°C and the humidity was who-knows-what, the urgency to buy one of these energy-gobblersbecame increasingly clear. Yet, whether to relent – and thereby further damage the environment (and my electricity bill!) – was stillindeterminate, especially since we Americans have a long way to go before our air conditioners become 100 per centenvironmentally-friendly.
Carrier to today
The late Willis Carrier, engineer and inventor of the first half of the 20th century, is a sort of ‘patron saint’ of the US coolant business.He started a modest engineering firm with a handful of partners, one which grew into a multi-city international business based out of Connecticut.At the age of 25, Carrier had the first patent on a type of air conditioner that would presage the modern age of cooling. His design wastailor-made for a stuffy lithography plant in Brooklyn, New York, where the humid conditions ruined the pictures at the site. From there,he gained world renown, in part from his appearance at the 1939 World’s Fair, where his “igloo” drew rapt attention.A lot has happened since 1939. Today’s machines would shock Carrier and his ilk, whose version of an air conditioner is reminiscentof the early computers that used to occupy a whole room.No longer the mammoth machines of yore, today’s models are sleeker, more cost- and energy-efficient, and manufactured bycompanies that have mandates for controlling greenhouse gas emissions.Vendors tout new – or new versions of old – technologies such as thermal cooling, which operates on a load-reduction premise.Cooling methods from vendors in the space, such as Ice Energy and Trane, are hoping this changes the way Americans think of their coolers.Trane has installed numerous “thermal storage” units in financial buildings such as Credit Suisse and Morgan Stanley in Manhattan.Ice Energy, based in Windsor, Colorado, has monopolised restaurants, fitness centres, manufacturing plants and automobiledealerships. It promotes a hybrid cooling technology that integrates with standard AC units.Ramachandran Narayanamurthy, director of research and innovation for the company, draws a distinction between what Ice Energydoes and standard methods of air conditioning.Ice storage air conditioning, he says, provides both energy and environmental benefits plus comfort. “The main reason you have air conditioning is to be comfortable, but the downside is that it drives power consumption when we have the least amount of power available on the electric grid.”His method is to run the compressor and all the power-consuming elements overnight, storing the cooling that would normally bedelivered into a building in the form of ice. He claims that this can cut power consumption by 95 per cent.