is a procedure based on acids. The effect is not the same compared to thealkaline process. The procedure is more sensitive, against pollution. Branches and bark disturbthe chemical process and will not solute as well as the wood. Also resin disturbs the process.Advantages of the “sulphite process” are more process variations and producing conditionswithout unwanted thiol and sulfide production.
NSSC (Neutral Sulphite Semichemical)
is most used. The yield of this process isapproximately 75%,The
TMP (Thermo-Mechanical Process)
is generally used for newsprint paper.The new
CTMP (Chemi-Thermo-Mechanical Process)
is high efficient (approx. 95%) and theconsumption of water is not as high than in other described processes. But it needs more energyto produce the pulp.In modern pulp plants, this kind of waste water has to treated generally:
washing and emptying
evaporation condensatesThe amount of water which has to be treated is very high
/t pulp with mechanical processes and up to 150 m
/t pulp with chemicalprocess. The waste water contains up to 10- 30% of fibres, fibrils and CaCO
and COD load vary between different kind of wood (BOD
- 100- 1.000mg/L; COD-300- 4.000mg/L)Waste water is treated by anaerobic waste water treatment vaporizing, incineration and recovery.
Paper waste water
Paper is produced from “new” or recycled pulp. Depending on the quality of pulp, it’s used fordifferent sorts of paper. During the process of paper producing, kaolin, CaCO
, talc and/or TiO
are added to the pulp, to give the paper whiter color.Also chemicals like organic fillers (starch, latex), colors, aluminum sulfate, etc. are used to makepaper of different properties or making the process simpler.Paper can be decolored, which can be done with two different processes. Washing the pulp witha high amount of water or washing with a low amount of water plus additions like sodium silicates,sodium carbonate, fatty acids or non ion detergents.