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Pulp and paper industry water treatment

Pulp and paper industry water treatment

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Published by: kannanjbr on Feb 09, 2011
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Pulp and paper industry water treatment
This two kinds of industries are normally separated. The pulp (raw material for paper industry)and the paper industry, produce different kind of waste water. There is also a third relatedindustry, the paper recycling industry, which has a similar kind of waste water. In the followingtext the three branches of industry are separated.
Production process, pulp industry
The composition of pollutants in waste water of paper industries, depend on the kind of rawmaterial which is used. For paper production wood, bagasse (outer stalk sugar cane), hemp,straw, etc. are used. Five basic procedures are used to produce pulp in an industrial way. Theconduction of case can be with or without a bleaching process.If a bleaching process is also step of production, the Lignin will be destroyed. The effect is awhiter paper. The color depends also on the different kinds of wood or other raw materials whichare used for the production. This step have the disadvantage to load the environment more,because of the use of chemicals like chlorine or chlorine dioxide (which are restricted, because ofthe process).
Chemical Processes
To produce pulp for fine and print paper, two chemical procedures are used.The
Kaft process
is an alkaline process. The lignin is cracked by NaOH or Na
S, which is veryeffective at different kind of woods specially the wood contains pollutions. Disadvantage is theodour problem, based on thiols and sulfides. The pulp has also to be bleached more, comparedto the suphite process.Process water of this kind of process contains SO
and the pH is between 8 and 9. BOD andCOD are depending on the kind of wood. Normally the BOD
is between 1- 2 g/L, and the COD is4- 7 g/L.
sulphite process
is a procedure based on acids. The effect is not the same compared to thealkaline process. The procedure is more sensitive, against pollution. Branches and bark disturbthe chemical process and will not solute as well as the wood. Also resin disturbs the process.Advantages of the “sulphite process” are more process variations and producing conditionswithout unwanted thiol and sulfide production.
Semichemical processes
NSSC (Neutral Sulphite Semichemical)
is most used. The yield of this process isapproximately 75%,The
TMP (Thermo-Mechanical Process)
is generally used for newsprint paper.The new
CTMP (Chemi-Thermo-Mechanical Process)
is high efficient (approx. 95%) and theconsumption of water is not as high than in other described processes. But it needs more energyto produce the pulp.In modern pulp plants, this kind of waste water has to treated generally:
bleaching solutions
washing and emptying
evaporation condensatesThe amount of water which has to be treated is very high
approx. 30m
 /t pulp with mechanical processes and up to 150 m
 /t pulp with chemicalprocess. The waste water contains up to 10- 30% of fibres, fibrils and CaCO
and COD load vary between different kind of wood (BOD
- 100- 1.000mg/L; COD-300- 4.000mg/L)Waste water is treated by anaerobic waste water treatment vaporizing, incineration and recovery.
Paper waste water
Paper is produced from “new” or recycled pulp. Depending on the quality of pulp, it’s used fordifferent sorts of paper. During the process of paper producing, kaolin, CaCO
, talc and/or TiO
 are added to the pulp, to give the paper whiter color.Also chemicals like organic fillers (starch, latex), colors, aluminum sulfate, etc. are used to makepaper of different properties or making the process simpler.Paper can be decolored, which can be done with two different processes. Washing the pulp witha high amount of water or washing with a low amount of water plus additions like sodium silicates,sodium carbonate, fatty acids or non ion detergents.
Paper recycling

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