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Topic 4 Work,Energy and Power

# Topic 4 Work,Energy and Power

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02/21/2012

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POLITEKNIK KOTA BHARUDEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATIC,SCIENS AND COMPUTERB 1004 – SCIENCE TECHNICIANTOPIC 4 : WORK,ENERGY AND POWER
WORK:
If an object is moved through a distance,
s
, by the action of a force,
F
,then
WORK
has been done on the object by the force.The amount of work done in moving an object is the product of thecomponent of the force acting on the object parallel to thedisplacement,
F
,
and
the magnitude of the displacement,
s
, i.e.Work is a
scalar quantity
. The unit of work is the
joule, (J)
, which isthe amount of work done on an object when a force of 1 newtonproduces a displacement of 1 metre.
Work done raising an object against the force of gravity:
The force required to lift an object of mass, m,near the surface of the earth is mg, that is, theweight of the object, directed upwards.When it is raised to a height,
h
, the object isdisplaced by a distance
h
in the direction of theforce.Thus the work done against gravity,
W
g
, in raising an object of mass
m
through a height
h
is given by
1

Work done accelerating an object from rest:
If a force,
F
, is applied to a stationary object of mass,
m
, on a frictionless surface, the objectaccelerates from rest.After the object has moved a distance,
s
, thework done by the force will be
W = Fs
FromNewton's second law, the force is related to the acceleration by
F = ma
and from the equations of motion, the velocity,
v
, of the object after ithas moved a distance,
s
, is given by
v
2
= 2asThe acceleration is thus
a = v
2
/2s
Thus, the work required to cause an object of mass,
m
, to beaccelerated from rest to a velocity,
v
, is given byEqually, the work that needs to be done in order to stop a body of mass,
m
, travelling at a velocity,
v
, is given by
W = ½mv
2
.
Example 1:
How much work is done when a force of 5 kN moves its point of application 600mm in the direction of the force.
Solution

2

Example 2 :
Find the work done in raising 100 kg of water through a verticaldistance of 3m.
Solution
The force is the weight of the water, so
3