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17.1 - Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium

17.1 - Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium

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Published by: IB Screwed on Feb 09, 2011
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Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium
17.1.1 - Describe the equilibrium established between a liquid and its own vapour andhow it is affected by temperature changesVapour
A gas that is below its critical temperature.
Critical Temperature
The highest temperature at which a gas can be changed back into aliquid using an increase in pressure.Phase equilibrium is when a chemical reaction is not taking place, but a change of state (orphase). This is studied in the context of liquid-vapour equilibrium, when a
is moving between its liquid and gaseous states at equal rates.Just like a chemical reaction at equilibrium, the rates of reaction for both the forward andbackwards reactions can be graphed as follows:
    
Since the gaseous particles will put pressure on the remaining liquid particles, and thepressure increases the more gaseous particles there are, then
when the system is atequilibrium, the pressure will remain constant
equilibrium vapour pressure
is constant at a constant temperature and increases as thetemperature increases for a given system. The equilibrium vapour pressure is independent of both the volume and the surface area of the liquid.
17.1.2 - Sketch graphs showing the relationship between vapour pressure andtemperature and explain them in terms of kinetic theory
As temperature increases, the pressure increases. A liquid with a high vapour pressure is
because it will readily evaporate.The type of intermolecular forces between the particles will affect how easily these bondsare broken, which in turn will affect the temperature at which they break.As we know from the
Maxwell-Boltzmann diagram
, the higher the temperature, the moreparticles there will be that are above the boiling point.
17.1.3 - State and explain the relationship between enthalpy of vaporisation, boiling pointand intermolecular forcesEnthalpy of Vaporisation (
This is the amount of energy required
to vaporise one mole of a liquid
. This means that allthe intermolecular forces between the particles must be broken. If the particles have strongbonds, then this will mean a larger enthalpy of vaporisation.

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