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Change Management

Change Management

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Published by SOFIA MIRZA
Nothing is constant except CHANGE.
Nothing is constant except CHANGE.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: SOFIA MIRZA on Aug 18, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/01/2013

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INTRODUCTION
Change management can be viewed from two perspectives – from thoseimplementing the change and from the recipients of change. Your view ofchange management varies dramatically if you are the executive demandingthe change versus the front line employee who may be unsure why a changeis even needed.In many cases at the onset of a new change, neither the executive nor thefront-line employee is knowledgeable about managing change.
CHANGE MANAGEMENT DEFINED
The simplest definition of change management is;
“making change in a planned and managed fashion”.
Today’s proliferation of digital media is making the conscious practice ofchange management more important than it was only a few years ago.Organizational change can be defined as;
“any alteration in people, structure or technology” 
Although change has always been a part of manager’s job, it has become evenmore important in recent years.
TYPES OF CHANGE
Changes in an organization can often be identified as one of four types, withthe definite possibility of overlap among them:
Operational changes
affect the way the ongoing operations of thebusiness are conducted, such as the automation of a particular area.
Strategic changes
occur in the strategic business direction, e.g., movingfrom an inpatient to an outpatient focus.
Cultural changes
affect the basic organizational philosophies by whichthe business is conducted, e.g., implementing a continuous qualityimprovement (CQI) system.
 Political changes
in staffing occur primarily for political reasons ofvarious types, such as those that occur at top patronage job levels ingovernment agencies.
 
These four different types of change typically have their greatest impacts atdifferent levels of the organization. For example, operational changes tend tohave their greatest impacts at the lower levels of the organization, right on thefiring line. People working at the upper levels may never notice changes thatcause significant stress and turmoil to those attempting to implement thechanges. On the other hand, the impact of political changes is typically feltmost at the higher organizational levels. As the name implies, these changesare typically made not for results-oriented reasons but for reasons such aspartisan politics or internal power struggles. When these changes occur in arelatively bureaucratic organization, as they often do, those working at thebottom often hardly notice the changes at the top. Patients are seen and thefloors are cleaned exactly as they were before. The key point is thatperformance was not the basis of the change; therefore, the performers are notmuch affected.
DEALING WITH RESISTENCE TO CHANGE
It is easy to change the things that nobody caresabout. It becomes difficult when you start tochange the things that people do care about—orwhen they start to care about the things that youare changing.
 —Lorenzi and Riley 
Resistance to change is an ongoing problem. At both the individual and theorganizational levels, resistance to change impairs concerted efforts toimprove performance. Many corporate change efforts have been initiated attremendous cost only to be halted by resistance among the organization'semployees. Organizations as a whole also manifest behavior similar to that ofindividuals when faced with the need to change. Change can be a threat topeople in an organization. Organizations can build up inertia that motivatespeople to resist changing their status quo, even though change might bebeneficial.
 Why people resist change?
It’s often said that most people hate any change that doesn’t jingle in theirpockets. Their resistance to change is well documented. Why do people resistchange? An individual is likely to resist change for three reasons:uncertainity, concern over peronal loss, and the belief that the change is not inthe organization’s best interest.
Techniques For Reducing Resistance
While dealing with resistance to change, there are six actions manager canuse. These actions include education and communication, participation,facilitation and support, negotiation, manipulation and cooptation and
 
coercion. Depending on the type and source of the resistance, managers mightchoose to use any of these actions.
"ADKAR" --- A model for change management
ADKAR is a goal-oriented change management model that allows changemanagement teams to focus their activities on specific business results. Themodel was initially used as a tool for determining if change managementactivities like communications and training were having the desired resultsduring organizational change. The model has its origins in aligningtraditional change management activities to a given result or goal.For example, Awareness of the business reasons for change is a goal of earlycommunications related to a business change. Desire to engage andparticipate in the change is the goal of sponsorship and resistancemanagement. Knowledge about how to change is the goal of training andcoaching. By identifying the required outcomes or goals of changemanagement, ADKAR becomes a useful framework for change managementteams in the planning and execution of their work.
PEOPLE DIMENSION OF CHANGE
Research shows that problems with the people dimension of change are themost commonly cited reason for project failures. In a study with 248companies, effective change management with employees was listed as one ofthe top-three overall success factors for the project. Helping managers to beeffective sponsors of change were considered the most critical success factoroverall.Effective management of the
 people dimension of change
requires managing fivekey goals that form the basis of the ADKAR model:
Awareness
of the need to change
Desire
to participate and support the change
Knowledge
of how to change (and what the change looks like)

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