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Summer 2010
“LaGuardia in the Jazz Age” inThe Politics of History by HowardZinn; Beacon Press, 1970.The Marihuana Problem in theCity of New York by Mayor La-Guardia’s Committee on Marihuana.1944. (Reprinted in 1973 by the NewYork Academy of Medicine.)
By Fred Gardner
Fiorello LaGuardia was the mayor of New York City when Howard Zinn wasgrowing up in Brooklyn during the GreatDepression. Zinn admired LaGuardiaand in the end would have importantthings in common with him. LaGuardiahad flown bombing missions for the U.S.Army over Italy during World War One.Zinn flew bombing missions over occu-pied France in World War Two. Bothmen would come to reconsider the worthof those missions. Both would spendtheir lives speaking for people whosevoices hardly got heard.
LaGuardia in Congress
es-tablished Zinn’s reputation asa historian.
Zinn wrote his PhD dissertation onLaGuardia’s years as a Congressmanrepresenting the tenement dwellers of East Harlem. (LaGuardia served in Con-gress from 1917 through 1933, minus hisstint in the Army and two years as Presi-dent of the New York City Board of Al-dermen.)
 LaGuardia in Congress,
published byCornell University Press in 1959, estab-lished Zinn’s reputation as a historian.It debunked the prevailing text-book image of the 1920s. Its themes were en-capsulated in an essay, “LaGuardia in theJazz Age,” which Zinn published in
ThePolitics of History
(Beacon, 1970).“In the United States, the twentieswere the years of Prosperity, and FiorelloLaGuardia is one of its few public fig-ures who suspected to what extent thatlabel was a lie,” Zinn asserted.Nor did LaGuardia mistake the twen-ties for “a time of quiet isolation fromforeign affairs,” Zinn wrote. “The UnitedStates was established as a dominantpower in the Caribbean having pur-chased the Virgin Islands during the war,possessing a naval base in Cuba, andexercising such control over the Repub-lic of Panama, Nicaragua, Haiti, and theDominican Republic as to make them‘virtual protectorates.’ American influ-ence in the Far East extended from theAleutian Islands to Hawaii and acrossthe western Pacific to the Philippines.”
For Howard Zinn:
LaGuardia and the Truth About Marijuana
LaGuardia opposed sending 5,000U.S. troops to Nicaragua in 1927 to up-hold a government subservient to U.S.lumber and fruit interests. “The protec-tion of American life and property inNicaragua does not require the formi-dable naval and marine forces operatingthere now,” La Guardia declared. “Giveme 50 New York cops and I can guaran-tee full protection.”Zinn wrote that LaGuardia did not seethe 1920s as a time of “national politicalconsensus, when a general mood of well-being softened political combat.” An-gered by Rep. Fred Vinson of Kentucky’sreference to New York’s “Italian bloc”of voters, LaGuardia “denounced thedrastic restriction of immigration andparticularly the ‘national origins’ methodof determining quotas... The restrictionbills were ‘unscientific,’ LaGuardiacharged, the ‘result of narrow-minded-ness and bigotry’ and ‘inspired by influ-ences who have a fixed obsession onAnglo-Saxon superiority.’”By 1937, when Congress passed theMarihuana Tax Act, LaGuardia was inhis fourth year as mayor of NYC. Hisnemesis, Vinson of Kentucky, was theTreasury Department’s key ally in push-ing marijuana prohibition through theHouse Ways and Means Committee.Vinson conducted a hostile interrogationof the only witness who understood andstrongly opposed prohibition, Dr. Will-iam Woodward of the American Medi-cal Association. When the Act came be-fore the full House, instead of explain-ing its provisions, Vinson recountedHarry Anslinger’s “reefer madness” tes-timony as undisputed fact.The question of whether the Ameri-can Medical Association supported theMarihuana Tax Act was answered thusby Vinson: “Our committee heard testi-mony of Dr. William Wharton —
who not only gave this measure his fullsupport, but also the approval from theAmerican Medical Association which herepresented as legislative counsel.” TheAct passed on a voice vote and was en-acted into law in September of 1937.Fred Vinson, brazen liar, went on to be-come Chief Justice of the U.S. SupremeCourt.
 Marijuana prohibition might not have sailed through Con-gress if Fiorello LaGuardiahad still been a member in1937.
Marijuana prohibition might not havesailed through Congress if FiorelloLaGuardia had still been a member in1937. It was based on false facts that noone in Congress questioned, but whichLaGuardia recognized as baloney —no-tably that marijuana is addictive andleads to insanity and violent crime. In1938 LaGuardia, as mayor, assigned theNew York Academy of Medicine(NYAM) to investigate the premises of marijuana prohibition. A blue-ribboncommittee of 31 scientists was as-sembled. Physicians from the city De-partment of Hospitals supervised clini-cal research involving 77 patients.“My own interest in marihuana goesback many years,” LaGuardia wrote ina foreword to the committee’s report, “tothe time when I was a member of theHouse of Representatives and, in thatcapacity, heard of the use of marihuanaby soldiers stationed in Panama. I wasimpressed at that time with the report of an Army Board of Inquiry which em-phasized the relative harmlessness of thedrug and the fact that it played very littlerole, if any, in problems of delinquencyand crime in the Canal Zone.“The report of the present investiga-tions covers every phase of the problemand is of practical value not only to ourown city but to communities through-out the country. It is a basic contributionto medicine and pharmacology. I am gladthat the sociological, psychological, andmedical ills commonly attributed tomarihuana have been found to be exag-
Fiorello LaGuardia
gerated...“The scientific part of the researchwill be continued in the hope that thedrug may prove to possess therapeuticvalue for the control of drug addiction.”In other words, the NYAM investigators—and Mayor LaGuardia himself— werehip to the harm-reduction potential of marijuana as a substitute for hard drugs!A key chapter of the report by Drs.Samuel Allentuck and Karl Bowman,“The Psychiatric Aspects of MarijuanaIntoxication,” was published in the
 American Journal of Psychiatry
in Sep-tember 1942. It specifically refuted theFederal Bureau of Narcotics character-ization of marijuana as an addictive drugthat led to insanity.An exhaustive investigation into theextent of use by New Yorkers was con-ducted by a Police Department squad—“two policewomen and four policemen,one of whom was a Negro,” accordingto Dudley Schoenfeld, MD, who de-scribed their findings in the LaGuardiaCommittee Report.
(See excerpt on next  page.)
“While on duty the squad actually‘lived’ in the environment in which mari-huana smoking or peddling was sus-pected. They frequented poolrooms, barsand grills, dime-a-dance halls, otherdance halls to which they took their ownpartners, theatres —backstage and in theaudience‚ roller skating rinks, subways,public toilets and parks and docks. Theyconsorted with the habitués of theseplaces, chance acquaintances on thestreet, loiterers around schools, subways,and bus terminals. They posed as ‘suck-ers’ from out of town and as students incollege and high schools.”The full Report,
The Marihuana Prob-lem in the City of New York,
was pub-lished in 1944. Its conclusions, verba-tim:Marijuana is used extensively in theBorough of Manhattan but the problemis not as acute as it is reported to be inother sections of the United States.• The introduction of marijuana intothis area is recent as compared to otherlocalities.• The cost of marijuana is low andtherefore within the purchasing powerof most persons.• The distribution and use of mari- juana is centered in Harlem.• The majority of marijuana smokers
continued at bottom of next page
The Canal Zone Papers
Studies by the U.S. Army of soldiersusing marijuana in Panama in the1920s had been collectively ignored bythe Congress during the debate on Pro-hibition. The first study was conductedin April 1925 by a committee chairedby Colonel J.F. Siler of the MedicalCorps. A group that included soldiers,doctors, and police officers was ob-served smoking cannabis.One officer who participated con-cluded, “I think we can safely say,based upon samples we have smokedhere and upon the reports of the indi-viduals concerned, that there is noth-ing to indicate any habit-forming ten-dency or any striking ill effects. All of the statements to the effect that two orthree puffs produce remarkable effectsare nonsense, judging from our expe-rience.”The U.S. government printing of-fice published Col. Siler’s report (“Ca-nal Zone Papers,” 1931), which foundno evidence that marijuana was addic-tive or that it had “any appreciable del-eterious influence on the individualsusing it.”According to “the Great Book of Hemp” by Rowan Robinson, “Somecommanders disagreed with thecommitteee’s findings and ordered anew investigation in 1929. The surgeongeneral who directed the inquiry dulyreported that ‘use of the drug is notwidespread and... its effects upon mili-tary efficiency and upon discipline arenot great.’ A third investigation, initi-ated in June 1931, found no link be-tween cannabis and delinquency ormorale problems” in the U.S.-run Ca-nal Zone.
The 220-page LaGuardia Commit-tee Report was reprinted in full in
The Marijuana Papers,
an anthology editedby David Solomon, published byBobbs-Merrill in 1966 and in paper-back the following year by Signet.
Summer 2010 —19—
The Marihuana Problem in theCity of New York,
also known as “The LaGuardia Committee Report.”
Method of Retail Distribution
In general, marihuana is used in theform of a cigarette. Occasionally someindividuals chew the “weed” and seemto get the same effect as do othersthrough smoking. The common namesfor the cigarettes are: muggles, reefers,Indian hemp, weed, tea, gage and sticks.Cigarettes made of marihuana differ insize as do cigarettes made of tobacco:they are long, short, thick or thin.
Price varies in accordancewith the accepted opinion as tothe potency of the marihuanaused in the cigarettes,
The price varies in accordance withthe accepted opinion as to the potencyof the marihuana used in the cigarettes,and this appears to be determined by theplace of origin. The cheapest brand isknown as “sass-fras,” and retails for ap-proximately three for 50 cents. It is madeof the marihuana that is grown in theUnited States. Smokers do not considersuch marihuana very potent. They havefound that they must consume a greaternumber of cigarettes in order to obtainthe desired effect colloquially termed as“high.” This opinion, expressed bysmokers in the Borough of Manhattan,is at variance with that of some authori-ties who believe that marihuana grownin the United States is as potent as themarihuana grown in other countries.The “panatella” cigarette, occasion-ally referred to as “meserole,” is consid-ered to be more potent than the “sass-fras” and usually retails for approxi-mately 25 cents each. The hemp fromwhich the “panatella” is made comesfrom Central and South America.“Gungeon” is considered by the mari-huana smoker as the highest grade of marihuana. It retails for about one dol-lar per cigarette. The “kick” resultingfrom the use of this cigarette is reachedmore quickly than from the use of “sas-safras” or “panatella.” It appears to bethe consensus that the marihuana usedto make the “gungeon” comes from Af-rica. The sale of this cigarette is restrictedto a clientele whose economic status isof a higher level than the majority of marihuana smokers.There are two channels for the distri-bution of marihuana cigarettes— the in-dependent peddler and the “tea-pad.”From general observations, conversa-tions with “pad” owners, and discussionswith peddlers, the investigators esti-mated that there were about 500 “tea-pads” in Harlem and at least 500 ped-dlers.A “tea-pad” is a room or an apartmentin which people gather to smoke mari-huana. The majority of such places arelocated in the Harlem district. It is ourimpression that the landlord, the agent,the superintendent or the janitor is awareof the purposes for which the premisesare rented. The “tea-pad” is furnished ac-cording to the clientele it expects toserve. Usually, each “tea-pad” has com-fortable furniture, a radio, victrola or, asin most instances, a rented nickelodeon.The lighting is more or less uniformlydim, with blue predominating. An in-cense is considered part of the furnish-ings. The walls are frequently decoratedwith pictures of nude subjects sugges-tive of perverted sexual practices. Thefurnishings, as described, are believedto be essential as a setting for those par-ticipating in smoking marihuana.Most “tea-pads” have their trade re-stricted to the sale of marihuana. Someplaces did sell marihuana and whisky,and a few places also served as housesof prostitution. Only one “teapad” wasfound which served as a house of pros-titution, and in which one could buymarihuana, whisky, and opium.The marihuana smoker derivesgreater satisfaction if he is smoking inthe presence of others. His attitude in the“tea-pad” is that of a relaxed individual,free from the anxieties and cares of therealities of life. The “tea-pad” takes onthe atmosphere of a very congenial so-cial club. The smoker readily engagesin conversation with strangers, discuss-ing freely his pleasant reactions to thedrug and philosophizing on subjects per-taining to life in a manner which, attimes, appears to be out of keeping withhis intellectual level. A constant obser-vation was the extreme willingness toshare and puff on each other’s cigarettes.A boisterous, rowdy atmosphere did notprevail and on the rare occasions whenthere appeared signs indicative of a bel-ligerent attitude on the part of a smoker,he was ejected or forced to become moretolerant and quiescent.
What LaGuardia’s Police Investigators Found
uana Use in New York City... All Those Years Ago
continued on next page
 A constant observation wasthe extreme willingness toshare and puff on each other’scigarettes.
H. J
was employed by the federal Works Progress Administra-tion to teach art in Harlem in 1938.
The “Left” and Marijuana
In the political milieu from whichHoward Zinn emerged, marijuana usewas looked down on. This disapprovalby the “old left” was rooted in ignorance(the Communist Party fell for An-slinger’s disinformation), but it had apractical application. If you were, say, aunion organizer, you wouldn’t want togive management spies an excuse to re-port you to the cops. The fight for higherwages and better working conditionswould take precedence over your desireto smoke reefer (which was almost cer-tainly nil, because few Americans, es-pecially white folks, had ever touchedthe stuff)The “new left” of the ’60s had a dif-ferent attitude towards marijuana be-cause millions of people on college cam-puses and in the military had startedsmoking it by 1966, and recognized thatit wasn’t dangerous. Freedom to smokemarijuana became an auxiliary goal of “the movement” that was primarilyaimed at ending racial segregation andbringing the troops home from Vietnam.In 1968 or ‘69 Howard’s son Jeff Zinnwas working at a coffeehouse that was ahangout for GIs from Fort Jackson. Oneday the Military Police came to the housewhere Jeff was staying to arrest a GI wholived there. They took the soldier away(he hadn’t showed up to sign his dis-charge papers on what was supposed tobe his last day in the Army) and notifiedthe local police that they had observedmarijuana in the house. “Maybe a coupleof roaches,” Jeff recalls. He was arrestedand wound up in the county jail. He wastold that because he was not a SouthCarolina resident, he could not be bailedout —the whole bond would have to beput up. “My parents were very upset,”Jeff says. “If I had been busted on apicket line, that would have been fine,but not getting busted for pot.” He wasset free after three days and told to neveragain set foot in the state.Jeff Zinn, a hard-working theater di-rector, has no regrets about not revisit-ing South Carolina or about giving upmarijuana use in his early thirties.
HOWARD ZINN (left) in Berkeley,February 2009. He was staying witha granddaughter, getting away fromthe cold Boston winter. That’s whathe was doing in Santa Monica whenhe died of a heart attack in lateJanuary of this year.
 A person may be a confirmed smoker for a prolonged period,and give up the drug voluntar-ily without experiencing anycraving for it or exhibitingwithdrawal symptoms.The investigators estimated that there were about 500 “tea- pads” in Harlem and at least 500 peddlers.
A confirmed marihuana user canreadily distinguish the quality and po-tency of various brands, just as the ha-bitual cigarette or cigar smoker is ableto differentiate between the qualities of tobacco. Foreign-made cigarette paperis often used in order to convince thebuyer that the “tea is right from the boat.”are Blacks and Latin-Americans.• The consensus among marijuanasmokers is that the use of the drug cre-ates a definite feeling of adequacy.• The practice of smoking marijuanadoes not lead to addiction in the medicalsense of the word.• The sale and distribution of mari- juana is not under the control of anysingle organized group.• The use of marijuana does not leadto morphine or heroin or cocaine addic-tion and no effort is made to create amarket for these narcotics by stimulat-ing the practice of marijuana smoking.• Marijuana is not the determiningfactor in the commission of majorcrimes.• Marijuana smoking is not wide-spread among school children.• Juvenile delinquency is not associ-
 from previous page
ated with the practice of smoking mari- juana.• The publicity concerning the cata-strophic effects of marijuana smoking inNew York City is unfounded.
Impact of the Report
Although the LaGuardia Committeeprovided evidence and documentation insupport of its findings, the Report wasignored at the federal level —as wouldother painstaking commission reports bygovernment agencies and the medical es-tablishment in the decades to follow.In 1973 the New York Academy of Medicine reprinted the Report with aforeword by Raymond Schafer, theformer governor of Pennsylvania, whohad been appointed by President Rich-ard Nixon in 1970 to chair a commis-sion on “Marihuana and Drug Abuse.”
(See story on page 24.)
The Communist Party Line on Marijuana
The New York Academy of Medicine report includes an example of a “reefermadness” story from the
 Daily Worker 
for Dec. 28, 1940. Headlined “HealthAdvice,” the Communist line on marijuana could easily have come from a Wil-liam Randolph Hearst paper —minus any racist overtones, of course:“Smoking of the weed is habit-forming. It destroys the will-power, releasesrestraints, and promotes insane reactions. Continued use causes the face to be-come bloated, the eyes bloodshot, the limbs weak and trembling, and the mindsinks into insanity. Robberies, thrill murders, sex crimes and other offenses re-sult... The habit can be cured only by the most severe methods. The addict mustbe put into an institution, where the drug is gradually withdrawn...”
Summer 2010
One of the most interesting setups of a “tea-pad,” which was clearly not alongorthodox lines from the business pointof view, was a series of pup tents ar-ranged on a roof-top in Harlem. Thosepresent proceeded to smoke their ciga-rettes in the tents. When the desired ef-fect of the drug had been obtained theyall merged into the open and engaged ina discussion of their admiration of thestars and the beauties of nature.Because of the possibility of spread-ing disease, note should be taken of whatseems to be a custom known as “pick-up” smoking. It is an established prac-tice whereby a marihuana cigarette is litand after one or two inhalations is passedon to the next person. This procedure isrepeated until all present have had an op-portunity to take a puff or two on thecigarette.Occasionally a “tea-pad” owner mayhave peddlers who sell their wares inother localities and at the same timeserve as procurers for those who wish tosmoke marihuana on the premises.One also finds other methods of re-tail distribution. After proper introduc-tion, one may be able to purchase thecigarette in certain places. This is not aneasy procedure, but it can be accom-plished. In some bar-and-grills, restau-rants, and bars our investigators wereable to establish contact with someonewho in turn, would introduce them to acouraged, nothing was done to prohibitsuch practice.There are specific sections in the Bor-ough of Manhattan where the sale of marihuana cigarettes appears to be lo-calized: 1) the Harlem district; 2) theBroadway area, a little east and west of Broadway and extending from 42ndStreet to 59th Street. While it is true thatone may buy the cigarette in other dis-tricts, it is not as easily obtainable as inthe two localities mentioned.
The consensus of marihuanausers is that the drug is not harmful and that infrequent or constant use of marihuana doesnot result in physical or men-tal deterioration.
The Mental Attitude of the Mari-huana Smoker Toward Society
Most of the smokers of marihuanacoming within the scope of our surveywere unemployed, and of the others mosthad part-time employment.Occasional, as well as confirmed,users were all aware of the laws pertain-ing to the illegal use of the drug. Theydid not indulge in its use with a spirit of braggadocio or as a challenge to law ashas been reported by some investigatorsin other districts. They did not expressremorse concerning their use of mari-huana, nor did they blame this habit as acausative factor in the production of spe-cial difficulties in their personal lives.Except for musicians there appeared tobe no attempt at secretiveness on the partof the habitual smoker. This attitude isin marked contrast to that usually takenby those addicted to morphine, cocaine,or heroin.The consensus of marihuana users isthat the drug is not harmful and that in-frequent or constant use of marihuanadoes not result in physical or mental de-terioration.In describing the most common re-action to the drug they always stated thatit made them feel “high.” Elaboration of  just what the smoker meant by “high”varied with the individual. However,there was common agreement that a feel-ing of adequacy and efficiency was in-duced by the use of marihuana and thatcurrent mental conflicts were allayed.Organic illness was not given as a causefor smoking “reefers.”A person may be a confirmed smokerfor a prolonged period, and give up thedrug voluntarily without experiencingany craving for it or exhibiting with-drawal symptoms. He may, at some timelater on, go back to its use. Others mayremain infrequent users of the cigarette,taking one or two a week, or only whenthe “social setting” calls for participa-tion. From time to time we had one of our investigators associate with a mari-huana user. The investigator would bringup the subject of smoking. This wouldinvariably lead to the suggestion thatthey obtain some marihuana cigarettes.They would seek a “tea-pad,” and if itwas closed the smoker and our investi-gator would calmly resume their previ-ous activity, such as the discussion of lifein general or the playing of pool. Therewere apparently no signs indicative of frustration in the smoker at not beingable to gratify the desire for the drug.We consider this point highly significantsince it is so contrary to the experienceof users of other narcotics. A similar situ-ation occurring in one addicted to the useof morphine, cocaine, or heroin wouldresult in a compulsive attitude on the partof the addict to obtain the drug. If un-able to secure it, there would be obviousIt is their contention that this mild alco-holic beverage aids the drug in produc-ing the desired effect. Most marihuanasmokers insist that the appetite is in-creased as the result of smoking.We have been unable to confirm theopinion expressed by some investigatorsthat marihuana smoking is the first stepin the use of such drugs as cocaine, mor-phine, and heroin. The instances are ex-tremely rare where the habit of mari-huana smoking is associated with addic-tion to these other narcotics.
Marihuana and Eroticism
In the popular agitation against theuse of marihuana, its erotic effects havebeen stressed repeatedly. As previouslystated in this report, our investigatorsvisited many “tea-pads” in the Boroughof Manhattan. It is true that lewd pic-tures decorated the walls but they did notfind that they were attracting attentionor comment among the clientele. In factone of the investigators who was con-centrating his attention on the relationbetween marihuana and eroticism statedin his report that he found himself em-barrassed in that he was the only one whoexamined the pictures on the wall.Numerous conversations with smok-ers of marihuana revealed only occa-sional instances in which there was anyrelation between the drug and eroticism.At one time one of our investigators at-tended a very intimate social gatheringin an apartment in Harlem, having suc-ceeded in securing the position of door-man for the occasion.There was a great deal of drinking,and the dancing was of the most mod-ern, abandoned, “jitter-bug” type. Thisform of dancing is highly suggestive andappears to be associated with erotic ac-tivity. The investigator made careful ob-servation of those who were dancing,and found that there was no differencebetween the ones who were and the oneswho were not smoking “reefers.” Simi-lar impressions were received after care-ful observations in public dance halls,places where they knew that some per-sons were under the influence of mari-huana.Visits to brothels which occasionallyalso served as “teapads” revealed that theuse of marihuana was not linked to sexu-ality. These observations allow us tocome to the conclusion that in the mainmarihuana was not used for direct sexualstimulation.
 NYPD Report
 from previous page
physical and mental manifestations of frustration. This may be considered pre-sumptive evidence that there is no trueaddiction in the medical sense associatedwith the use of marihuana.The confirmed marihuana smokerconsumes perhaps from six to ten ciga-rettes per day. He appears to be quiteconscious of the quantity he requires toreach the effect called “high.” Once thedesired effect is obtained he cannot bepersuaded to consume more.
 He knows when he has had enough. The smoker deter-mines for himself the point of being “high,” and is ever con-scious of preventing himself  from becoming “too high.”
He knows when he has had enough.The smoker determines for himself thepoint of being “high,” and is ever con-scious of preventing himself from be-coming “too high.” This fear of being“too high” must be associated with someform of anxiety which causes thesmoker, should he accidentally reach thatpoint, immediately to institute measuresso that he can “come down.” It has beenfound that the use of such beverages asbeer, or a sweet soda pop, is an effectivemeasure. Smokers insist that “it doessomething to the stomach” and that it isalways associated with “belching.” Acold shower will also have the effect of bringing the person “down.”Smokers have repeatedly stated thatthe consumption of whisky while smok-ing negates the potency of the drug. Theyfind it is very difficult to get “high” whiledrinking whisky, and because of thatsmokers will not drink whisky whileusing the “weed.” They do, however,consume large quantities of sweet wines.peddler who apparently made regularrounds of these places in order to sellcigarettes. It appears that the owners of such places are not aware of this prac-tice, and in many instances they woulddischarge any employee known to bedirectly or indirectly associated with thesale of marihuana.On rare occasions public guides, if properly approached would refer one toa place where the “reefer” could bebought. There was no evidence that theguide received money when acting as go-between. Terminal porters, mainly Ne-groes, appeared to be more directly con-nected with the traffic of marihuana.They were more conversant with the sub- ject and it was easier for them to estab-lish contact between purchaser and ped-dler.Marihuana smoking is very commonin the theatres of Harlem according tothe observations of the investigators. Wehave reason to believe that in some in-stances, perhaps few in number, employ-ees actually sold cigarettes on the pre-mises. In the Harlem dance halls smok-ing was frequently observed either in thelavatories or on the main floor. The pa-trons as well as the musicians were seenin the act of smoking. There was no evi-dence of sales being made by employ-ees on the premises, or that there was anygain on the part of the owners or employ-ees in permitting this practice. Whereasthe smoking of marihuana was not en-
We have been unable to con- firm the opinion expressed bysome investigators that mari-huana smoking is the first stepin the use of such drugs as co-caine, morphine, and heroin.
Blind SingerJitterbugsA Flower for TeacherJitterbugs 2

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