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2nd Term Biology p

2nd Term Biology p

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Published by Henry Oladele Ejiko
E-learning lecture notes
E-learning lecture notes

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Published by: Henry Oladele Ejiko on Feb 10, 2011
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GOOD SHEPHERD SCHOOLS
Nursery, Primary and Comprehensive High SchoolLagos Campus:
3, Olayinka Street, Omoroga, Meiran, Lagos.
Ogun State Campus:
38b, FPF Avenue, Dalemo, Alakuko
E-Mail:
Web Site:
SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTESUBJECT: BIOLOGYCLASS: SS1WEEKSCHEDULE OF WORK
1Modes of nutrition2Relevance of Biology Agriculture3Pest of Agricultural importance4Food production and storage5Human reproduction6Male sexual maturation7Basic ecological concepts
8
Biomes(Local and World)9Population10Functioning Ecosystem11Examination
REFERENCES
: - Modern Biology by S.T. RamalingemEssential Biology by M.C. MichaelP/Q ISSCE, UME AND CAMBRIDGE
Wikipedia,
Week 1
Modes of nutrition
Contents
Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition
Chemosynthesis
Carnivorous plants
 
Autotrophs
Overview of cycle between
autotrophs
andheterotrophs.Photosynthesisis the main means by which plants, algae and many bacteria produce organic compounds and oxygenfrom carbon dioxide and water (green arrow).An
autotroph
is an organismthat produces complexorganic compounds(such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
 
) from simpleinorganic moleculesusing energy fromlight (by photosynthesis
 
) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis
 
). They are the producers in afood chain, such as plantson land or algaein water. They are able to make their own food and canfix carbon.Therefore, they do not utilize organic compounds as an energy source or a carbon source.Autotrophs can reduce carbon dioxide (add hydrogen to it) to make organic compounds.The reduction of carbon dioxide, a low-energy compound, creates a store of chemicalenergy. Most autotrophs use water as thereducing agent,but some can use other  hydrogen compounds such as hydrogen sulfide.Autotrophs can be phototrophsor lithotrophs(chemoautotrophs). Phototrophs use light as an energy source, while lithotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds, such ashydrogensulfide, elementalsulfur , ammoniumandferrous iron. Phototrophs and lithotrophs use a  portion of theATPproduced during photosynthesis or the oxidation of inorganiccompounds to reduce NADP
+
 to NADPH in order to form organic compounds.
Chemosynthesis
 
chemosynthesis
is the biological conversion of one or more carbon molecules (usuallycarbon dioxideor methane
 
) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidationof  inorganic molecules (e.g.hydrogengas,hydrogen sulfide
 
) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.Chemoautotrophs,organisms that
 
obtain carbon through chemosynthesis, are phylogenetically diverse, but groups thatinclude conspicuous or biogeochemically-important taxa include the sulfur-oxidizinggamma and epsilon proteobacteria, the Aquificaeles,theMethanogenicarchaea and the neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria.Many microorganisms in dark regions of the oceans also use chemosynthesis to produce biomass from single carbon molecules. Two categories can be distinguished. In the raresites at which hydrogen molecules (H
2
) are available, the energy available from thereaction between CO
2
and H
2
(leading to production of methane, CH
4
) can be largeenough to drive the production of biomass.Alternatively, in most oceanic environments, energy for chemosynthesis derives fromreactions in which substances such ashydrogen sulfide or ammoniaare oxidized. This may occur with or without the presence of oxygen.Many chemosynthetic microorganisms are consumed by other organisms in the ocean,and symbioticassociations between chemosynthesizers and respiring heterotrophs are quite common. Large populations of animals can be supported by chemosynthetic primary productionathydrothermal vents,methane clathrates, cold seeps, andwhale falls.It has been hypothesized that chemosynthesis may support life below the surface of  Mars,  Jupiter'smoonEuropa, and other planets.
Some reactions produce sulfur, such as:
 Hydrogen sulfide chemosynthesis' 
:
CO
2
+ O
2
+ 4H
2
S → CH
2
O + 4S + 3H
2
O
Instead of releasingoxygen gas as in  photosynthesis, solid globules of sulfur are  produced. In bacteria that can do this, such as  purple sulfur bacteria,yellow globules of  sulfur are present and visible in the cytoplasm
Evaluation
(1)Explain the terms Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
Subtopic:Heterotrophic nutrition
Heterotrophic nutrition
isnutritionobtained by digesting organic compounds.Animals, fungi, many prokaryotes and protoctists are unable to synthesize organiccompounds to use as food. They are called heterotrophs. Heterotrophic organisms have to acquire and take in all the organic substances they needto survive.
All heterotrophs (except blood and gut parasites) have to convert solid food into solublecompounds capable of being absorbed (digestion). When the soluble products of 

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