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Analysis of Chopper Fed d.c. Drive With Pwm & Hysteresis Current Control Scheme

Analysis of Chopper Fed d.c. Drive With Pwm & Hysteresis Current Control Scheme

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Published by Bharadwaj Santhosh

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Published by: Bharadwaj Santhosh on Feb 10, 2011
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11/08/2012

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ANALYSIS OF CHOPPER FED D.C. DRIVE WITH PWM & HYSTERESIS CURRENTCONTROL SCHEME
Document By
SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY
 
Engineeringpapers.blogspot.comMore Papers and Presentations available on above site
 
ABSTRACT
-
 The work presented in this paper deals withthe analysis of chopper controlled DC drive. Performanceof DC drive with open loop (conventional and PWM) andclosed loop has been done. After analysis, it is found thatusing chopper circuit in open loop does not give accurateresult as compared to theoretical value as well as interms of quality. To avoid this draw-back, closed loopcontrol system is taken for drive control. Using Hysteresiscurrent control, it is observed that performance has beenimproved and output characteristics are satisfactory.
Key word: chopper, PWM, Hysteresis current control
INTRODUCTION
In DC shunt motor the speed is approximatelya constant speed. The speed drop from no load to full load isgenerally less than 5 to 6%. called as constant speed motor. In aseparately excited dc motor the field winding is separatelyconnected to an external source. This motor are almostexclusively used for variable speed drive as it can be easilyadopted to the load requirement. Different type of control for speed are used i.e. field control armature voltage control etc. Butarmature voltage control method are generally used. The speedregulation depends on the armature circuit resistance which ispractically very less. The speed torque characteristics of thismotor is a straight line i.e. the speed decreases with increasing inload. This type of motor are used where good speed regulationand adjustable speed is required. It has wide range of speedcontrol.
 
Elementary Chopper Circuit
 
(a)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
*Fig 1( a & b)-chopper circuit & output parameter chopped load voltage as shown in figure(1) is obtained from aconstant D.C supply of magnitude V
S.
During the period T
on,
thechopper is on and Vo= V
S
. During the interval T
off 
, chopper is off,load current flows through the free wheeling diode and Vo is zero,a chopped d.c voltage is produce at the load terminal incontinuous.
s
Toff  TonTon
.
0
+=
s
.
α  
=
,
 s
Ton  f  
..
0
=
 where
α
is called duty cycle,
  f  
= chopping frequency
.
CONTROL STRATEGIES
Output voltage V
o
can be controlled through
α
by opening andclosing the semiconductor switch periodically.
(a)
Const frequency System :
T
on
is varied but choppingfrequency f is kept constant. adjustment of Pulse width assuch this scheme is also called Pulse width modulation scheme or time ratio control (TRC) scheme,.
1
 
(b)
Variable frequency Scheme
The chopping frequency ‘
  f  
’ is varied and either T
on
of T
off 
is kept Const. thismethod of controlling
α
is also called frequencymodulation SchemeHigh efficiency of 70% to 95% are typicallyobtained using switched-mode, or chopper, circuits. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) allows control and regulation of thetotal output voltage. A basic dc-dc converter circuit known asthe buck converter is illustrated in Fig.1. An SPDT switch isconnected to the dc input voltage
 g 
V  
as shown. The switchnetwork changes the dc component of the voltage.Since 0
D
1, the dc component of 
 s
V  
is less than or equal to
 g 
V  
. In addition to dc voltage component
 s
V  
,
)(
 s
contains undesired harmonics of the switchingfrequency. A low-pass filter is employed for this purposeconverter of Fig. contains a single-section L-C low-pass filter.The filter has corner frequency
 L  f  
π  
21
0
=
.the conversion ratio M(D) is defined as the ratio of the dcoutput voltage V to the dc input voltage
 g 
V  
under stead-state condition: 
 g 
 D
=
)(
 For the buck converter, M(D) is given by
M(D) = D
When
δ
(t) is high (for 0< t < DT
s
), then MOSFET Q
1
conductswith negligible drain-to-source voltage. Hence, V
s
(t) isapproximately equal to V
g
, and the diode is reverse-biased. Thepositive inductor current i
1
(t) flows through the MSOFET.
control system:
control system can be constructed. that variesthe duty cycle to cause the output voltage to follow a givenreference
Figure(2) shown below illustrates the blockdiagram of a simple converter feedback system.Fig(2) PWM CONTROLLING SCHEMEThe output voltage is sensed and is compared with a referencevoltage
. The resulting error signal is compensated toderive analog voltage
)(
c
. The pulse-width modulator produces a switched voltage waveform that controls the gate of the power switch Q1. If this control system is designed such thatduty cycle is automatically adjusted and v follows the referencevoltage
, independent of variations in
 g 
V  
or load current.
CHOPPER CONTROL DC DRIVE
the constant-voltage d.c supply input allows improvedpower factor and wave form of A.C side. Also the relatively highchopping frequency employed permits reduced ripple current,which ensures better motor performance as well as reduced timelay in the system response due to the lower value of filter inductance required. However energy is lost at each commutationand the efficiency of the chopper decreases as the choppingfrequency is increased.In CLC ,
α
is varied in directly by controlling the motor current between certain specified maximum and minimum values.In effect, this type of control is a variable frequency control,variable on-time and off-time. The diagram of a chopper fed to amotor load is shown in below.
Chopper control of separately excited dc moto:
A chopper controlled separately excited dc motor driveis shown in Fig.(3)R
a
i
a
+ L
a
di
a
/dt+ E=V, 0
t
t
on
In this interval, armature current increases from i
a1
to i
a2
. Sincemotor is connected to the source during this interval. Which iscalled duty interval.
2
 
Figure(3): - Chopper Control of Separately Excited DC Motor 
R
a
i
a
+ L
a
di
a
/dt+ E=0, t
on
 
t
TMotor current decreases from i
a2
to i
a1
during this interval.From Fig. (3)
δ  
∫ 
==
on
a
Vd
0
1
VNow we haveI
a
= (
δ
V- E) / R
a
, ω
m
=
δ
V/ K – R
a
T/K
2
 Banking VaMotoringRegenerative
δ
increasing
ω
fig(4)The nature of speed torque characteristics
CONTROL SCHEME AND COMPONENTSPrinciple of the PWM DC motor drive
The permanent magnet DC motor may be represented by smallL/R ratio.Average motor current is a function of the electrical time constantof the motor,
τ
a,
where.
τ
a
= L/R For a PWM waveform with aperiod T the ratio of pulse width to switching period is denoted by
δ
. The average pulse current will depend upon the ratio of thecurrent pulse width,
δ
T, to the motor electrical time constant,
τ
a .
 
Fig(5) instantaneous motor current waveforms
Figure5 (a) High inductance motor & Figure 5(b) Low inductancemotor .Motor which has high armature inductance will require a lower PWM drive frequency in order to establish the required currentlevels, and hence develop the necessary torque. A lowinductance motor allows the use of a high switching drivefrequency thus resulting in an overall faster system response, theprinted circuit motor is one of the lowest inductance DC motorsavailable with electrical time constants in the order of 100 us,allow these motors to be used with switching rates as high as100kHz, with typical drive circuits being operated at 10kHz.Motor current control, and hence torque control, is achieved byvarying the width of the applied pulsed waveforms. This is done inopen look as well as in closed loop situation. . Open loopsituations are situations in which duty ration is fixed but closedloop situations are those in which the duty ratio not necessarily isfixed but may depend on the state of converter. For the closeloop case amounts to computation that are numerically far lessinvolved than the computations in averaging. The computationscan easily be perform also including higher harmonics.
PWM Motor control:
The current in the motor winding risesexponentially at a rate governed mainly by average supplyvoltage and motor inductance. If the pulse width is close to thetime constant of the motor then the current at the end of the firstpulse will reach nearly 60% of its maximum value, l
max
= V
dc
/R
a .
This is Sown as l
1
in fig.4. For the remainder of the PWM cycleswitch S1 is off and motor current decays through the diode at a
3
 
V
a
 b) V
a
V
dc
V
dc
 i
a
i
a
TdT

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