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Published by: Pearltrees2 on Feb 10, 2011
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A REPORT OF THE STUDY ONSOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL BARRIERS TOSCHOOLING IN SOUTHERN SUDAN
Photo by Jenn Warren, UNICEF 2008 
FINAL REPORT
November, 2008
 
2
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES...................................................................................5ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS...........................................................................6ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..................................................................................................7EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................81.0 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................101.1 Background........................................................................................................101.2 Goal and Objectives of Study.............................................................................111.3 Scope of the Study..............................................................................................111.4 Limitations of the Study.....................................................................................122.0 LITERATURE REVIEW.....................................................................................132.1 Overview.................................................................................................................132.2 Link between Education and Development............................................................132.3 A History of Education in Southern Sudan.............................................................142.4 The Process of Peace Negotiation and Outcome....................................................162.5 School Enrolment and Access to Education...........................................................172.6 The Policy Framework............................................................................................182.7 Training of Teachers...............................................................................................192.8 Girls’ Education......................................................................................................202.9 Barriers to Schooling and Attainment of Literacy..................................................212.10 Factors that Facilitate Education...........................................................................232.11 Framework of Factors Affecting Participation.....................................................243.0 METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................263.1 Research Design.................................................................................................263.2 Data Collection...................................................................................................283.3 Data Analysis.....................................................................................................284.0 STUDY FINDINGS..............................................................................................294.1 Introduction........................................................................................................294.2 Barriers to Schooling..............................................................................................294.2.1 Shrinking National Education Budgets.......................................................294.2.2 Economic Barriers...........................................................................................304.2.2.1 Children as Contributors to Household Economies..................................314.2.2.2 The Pull of Cash from the Markets...........................................................324.2.2.3 Soldiers and the Lure of Money................................................................324.2.3 Cultural Barriers..........................................................................................324.2.3.1 Cultural obligations, duties and expectations...........................................324.2.3.2 Girls as Family Assets..............................................................................334.2.3.3 The Girl Child’s Contribution to the Household......................................334.2.3.4 The Cultural Acceptance of Corporal Punishment...................................334.2.3.5 Polygamous Nature of Families and its Natural Acceptance....................344.2.4 School- based Social Barriers.....................................................................344.2.4.1 Social Construct of Gender.......................................................................344.2.4.2 Gender Based Violence (GBV) in Schools...............................................354.2.4.3 Sexual Escapades and Lack of Parental Counsel......................................354.2.4.4 Early Pregnancy and Emergence of Minor Families................................354.2.4.5 Peer Influence...........................................................................................36
 
34.2.4.6 Social Maladjustment and Trauma due to Conflict..................................364.2.4.7 Child to Child Violence............................................................................364.2.4.8 Preying on Girls........................................................................................374.2.5 Psycho-social Barriers................................................................................374.2.5.1 A Lapse in Age.........................................................................................374.2.5.2 Girls’ Maturation and Associated Challenges..........................................384.2.5.3 Reluctance of Girls to Return to School after Delivery............................384.2.5.4 Poor Evidence of Education Outcomes....................................................384.2.6 Human Resource Constraints......................................................................394.2.6.1 Teachers’ Limited Knowledge and Pedagogical Skills............................394.2.6.2 Severe Shortage of Teachers.....................................................................394.2.6.3 Unavailability of Teacher Training Facilities...........................................404.2.6.4 Inadequate Supervision by Education Administrators..............................404.2.6.5 Gender Disparities in Teacher Distribution..............................................414.2.6.6 Teachers’ Working Conditions.................................................................424.2.6.7 High Turnover of Teachers as They Transit to Better Paying Jobs..........424.2.6.8 Lapses and Failure to Uphold Professional Ethics by Some Teachers.....434.2.7 School Infrastructure and Facilities............................................................434.2.7.1 Lack of Adequate and Appropriate Learning Spaces...............................434.2.7.2 Inadequate and Poor Sanitation Facilities in Schools...............................434.2.7.3 Lack of Potable/ Safe Drinking Water in the Schools..............................444.2.7.4 Unavailability of Health Facilities near the Schools.................................444.2.7.5 Insufficient and Inefficient Supply of Learning Materials.......................444.2.7.6 Insufficient Recreational Facilities...........................................................444.2.7.7 Distance to School....................................................................................444.2.8 Others Barriers............................................................................................464.2.8.1 Insecurity and Safety.................................................................................464.3 Current Situation, Interventions and Policy Gaps..............................................464.3.1 The Go-to-School (GTS) Initiative and Associated Challenges......................464.3.2 Implementation of the Curriculum Change.....................................................474.3.3 School Environment........................................................................................474.3.4 TeachersRemuneration..................................................................................494.3.5 Coordination Challenges..................................................................................494.3.6 Policy Implementation.....................................................................................504.3.7 Policy on inclusiveness and its implementation..............................................514.3.8 Corporal Punishment.......................................................................................514.3.9 Policy on Pregnancy and Young Mothers Returning to School......................524.3.10 Policy on Sexual Harassment.........................................................................535.0 DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS..............................................................545.1 Conclusion..............................................................................................................545.2 Discussions.............................................................................................................555.2.1 School Fees......................................................................................................555.2.2 School Uniforms..............................................................................................555.2.3 Towards Gender Equity and Parity in Education............................................565.2.4 Text Books.......................................................................................................575.2.5 Curriculum.......................................................................................................575.2.6 School Calendar...............................................................................................585.2.7 Special Education.............................................................................................58

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