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Distribution Transformer Handbook(ABB)

Distribution Transformer Handbook(ABB)

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Published by: nbabous on Feb 11, 2011
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1
Distribution Transformer Handbook
IEC / CENELEC related specifications ABB Ident # 1LAC000003
© Copyright 2003 ABB Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 2
0. FOREWORD
The objective of this Distribution Transformer Handbook is to facilitate the selection, ordering andoperation of distribution transformers.The target readers are personnel involved in the various stages of a transformer’s service life, fromplanning the investment to the disposal of the transformer after use. It may also be useful to ABBpersonnel.The handbook is arranged with the sections following the transformers life from planning throughordering, installation, operation, maintenance and scrapping.Other useful information, including more theoretical topics, may be found at the end of thishandbook.Navigation through this handbook is facilitated through a three level contents following thisforeword, and the index at the end.ABB Power Technologies Division thanks the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) forpermission to reproduce information from its International Standards. All such extracts arecopyright of IEC, Geneva, Switzerland. All rights reserved. Further information on the IEC isavailable from www.iec.ch. IEC has no responsibility for the placement and context in which theextracts and contents are reproduced by ABB Power Technologies Division; nor is IEC in any wayresponsible for the other content or accuracy therein."The standards, IEC, CENELEC, IEEE, mentioned in the text refer to the edition given in the list ofstandards. For practical use only latest editions of the standards should be used.Extracts from the ABB Switchgear Manual are quoted by kind approval by the issuer.UK English has been selected for this document to comply with the text in IEC standards.
 
Page 3 Distribution Transformer Handbook
0.1. CONTENTS
0. FOREWORD 2
0.1. CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 5
1.1. ABB-GROUP 1.2. ABB POWER TECHNOLOGY DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS PTDT
2. TRANSFORMER TYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION 6
2.1. LARGE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, LDT 2.2. MEDIUM DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, MDT 2.3. SMALL DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, SDT 2.4. DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 2.4.1. Vacuum cast resin dry-type transformers 2.4.2. Resibloc 
® 
dry-type transformers 2.5. OTHER TRANSFORMER TYPES 2.5.1. Single phase transformers 2.5.2. Drives transformers 2.5.3. Additional products
3. INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH ENQUIRY AND ORDER 10
3.1. NORMAL INFORMATION 13.2. SPECIAL INFORMATION 113.3. PARALLEL OPERATIONS 113.4. ACCESSORIES 1
4. INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 13
4.1. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 14.2. INSTALLATION 14.2.1. Transport 14.2.2. Transfer of responsibility (Incoterms) 14.2.3. Handling, lifting 14.2.4. Receiving the transformer at site 14.2.5. Storage prior to energizing 14.2.6. Erection at site 14.2.7. Network connection 14.2.8. Earthing 14.2.9. Protective equipment 14.2.10. Insulation resistance, off-circuit/on-load tap changer 14.2.11. Off-circuit/on-load tap changer 14.2.12. Mechanical checks 14.2.13. Energizing 14.3. OPERATION 14.3.1. Lifetime 14.3.2. Temperature rise and load capacity 14.3.3. Parallel operation 14.3.4. Frequency 14.3.5. Protection devices 14.4. MAINTENANCE 24.4.1. Inspection during operation 24.4.2. Maintenance during operation 24.4.3. Inspection and maintenance during downtime 24.4.4. Investigation of transformer disturbances 24.4.5. Transformer liquid and insulation 24.4.6. Bushings and joints 24.4.7. Off-circuit tap changer 24.4.8. On-load tap changer 24.4.9. Liquid conservator with rubber sack 24.4.10. Gaskets 24.4.11. Surface protection 2
5. DISPOSAL AFTER USE 25
5.1. LOCAL REGULATIONS 25.2. REUSE 25.3. LANDFILL 25.4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) 25.5. PCB-CONTAMINATED OIL 2
6. PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS 26
6.1. INTRODUCTION 26.2. CHOICE OF SYSTEM VOLTAGE 26.3. BASIC PHYSICS OF THE TRANSFORMER 26.4. EQUIVALENT DIAGRAM 26.5. VOLTAGE RATIO AND VOLTAGE DROP (OR RISE) 26.6. EFFICIENCY 316.7. NO LOAD (MAGNETISING) CURRENT AND NO LOAD LOSSES 36.8. LOAD LOSSES 36.9. SHORT-CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE 36.10. ABILITY TO WITHSTAND SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS 46.11. TRANSFORMER SOUND 4
7. TRANSFORMER MATERIALS 48
7.1. CORE MATERIALS 47.2. CONDUCTOR MATERIALS 4

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