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Desingn Of Experiments ch08

# Desingn Of Experiments ch08

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02/11/2011

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Chapter 8. Supplemental Text MaterialS8-1. Yates’s Method for the Analysis of Fractional Factorials
Computer programs are almost always used for the analysis of fractional factorial.However, we may use Yates's algorithm for the analysis of a 2
-1
fractional factorialdesign by initially considering the data as having been obtained from a full factorial in
k -
1 variables. The treatment combinations for this full factorial are listed in standard order,and then an additional letter (or letters) is added in parentheses to these treatmentcombinations to produce the actual treatment combinations run. Yates's algorithm thenproceeds as usual. The actual effects estimated are identified by multiplying the effectsassociated with the treatment combinations in the full 2
k-1
design by the defining relationof the 2
-1
fractional factorial.The procedure is demonstrated in Table 1 below using the data from Example 8-1. Thisis a 2
4-1
fractional. The data are arranged as a full 2
3
A
,
B,
and
.Then the letter
is added in parentheses to yield the actual treatment combinations thatwere performed. The effect estimated by, say, the second row in this table is
A

+ BCD
since
A
and
BCD
are aliases.
Table 1.
Yates's Algorithm for the 2 Fractional Factorial in Example 8-1
41IV
TreatmentCombinationResponse (1) (2) (3) Effect EffectEstimate23
×
()
N
(1) 45 145 255 566 - -
a
(
d)
100 110 311 76
A+BCD
19.00
b
(
d)
45 135 75 6
B+ACD
1.5
ab
65 176 1 -4
AB+CD
-1.00
c
(
) 75 55 -35 56
C+ABD
14.00
ac
60 20 41 -74
AC+BD
-18.50
bc
80 -15 -15 76
19.00
abc
(
) 96 16 16 66
ABC+D
16.50
S8-2 Alias Structures in Fractional Factorials and Other Designs
In this chapter we show how to find the alias relationships in a 2
k-p
fractional factorialdesign by use of the complete defining relation. This method works well in simpledesigns, such as the regular fractions we use most frequently, but it does not work as wellin more complex settings, such as some of the irregular fractions and partial fold-overdesigns. Furthermore, there are some fractional factorials that do not have definingrelations, such as Plackett-Burman designs, so the defining relation method will not work for these types of designs at all.

Fortunately, there is a general method available that works satisfactorily in manysituations. The method uses the polynomial or regression model representation of themodel, say
yX
= +
11
β ε
where
y
is an
n

×
1 vector of the responses,
X
1
is an
n

×

p
1
matrix containing the designmatrix expanded to the form of the model that the experimenter is fitting,
β
1
is an
p
1

×
1vector of the model parameters, and
ε
is an
n

×
1 vector of errors. The least squaresestimate of
β
1
is
()
β
11111
=
XXXy
Suppose that the
true
model is
yXX
= + +
1122
β β ε
where
X
2
is an
n

×

p
2
matrix containing additional variables that are not in the fittedmodel and
β
2
is a
p
2
×
1 vector of the parameters associated with these variables. It canbe easily shown that
E
(
)()
β β β  β β
1111112212
= += +
XXXXA
where is called the
alias matrix
. The elements of this matrixoperating on
β
AXXXX
=
()
11112
2
identify the alias relationships for the parameters in the vector
β
1
.We illustrate the application of this procedure with a familiar example. Suppose that wehave conducted a 2
3-1
design with defining relation
I = ABC
or
I = x
1
x
2
x
3
. The model thatthe experimenter plans to fit is the main-effects-only model
yxxx
= + + + +
β β β β ε
0112233
In the notation defined above,
β  β  β  β  β
101231
1111111111111111
=
LNMMMMOQPPPP
=
LNMMMMOQPPPP
, and
X
Suppose that the true model contains all the two-factor interactions, so that
yxxxxxxxxx
= + + + + + + +
β β β β β β β ε
0112233121213132323
and
β  β  β  β
21213232
111111111111
=
LNMMMOQPPP
=
LNMMMMOQPPPP
, and
X

Now()
==
LNMMMMOQPPPP
XXIXX
111412
14000004044000andTherefore
E  E
(
)()
β β β  β  β  β  β  β  β  β  β  β  β  β  β  β β  β β  β β
11111122012301231213230123213312
14000004044000
= +
LNMMMMMOQPPPPP
=
LNMMMMMOQPPPPP
+
LNMMMMOQPPPPLNMMMOQPPP
=+++
LNMMMMOQPPPP
XXXX
The interpretation of this, of course, is that each of the main effects is aliased with one of the two-factor interactions, which we know to be the case for this design. While this is avery simple example, the method is very general and can be applied to much morecomplex designs.
S8-3. More About Fold-Over and Partial Fold-Over of Fractional Factorials
In the textbook, we illustrate how a fractional factorial design can be augmented withadditional runs to separate effects that are aliased. A fold-over is another design that isthe same size as the original fraction. So if the original experiment has 16 runs, the fold-over will require another 16 runs.Sometimes it is possible to augment a 2
k-p
fractional factorial with fewer than anadditional 2
k-p

runs. This technique is generally referred to as a partial fold over of theoriginal design.For example, consider the 2
5-2
design shown in Table 2. The alias structure for thisdesign is shown below the table.

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