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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOKMATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

QUADRATIC EQUATION & EXPRESSION

1.Quadratic expression :

A polynomial of degree two of the form ax

2

+ bx + c, a

≠

0 iscalled a quadratic expression in x.

2.Quadratic equation :

An equation ax

2

+ bx + c = 0, a

≠

0, a, b, c

∈

R has two andonly two roots, given by

α

=

− + −

bbaca

2

42

and

β

=

− − −

bbaca

2

42

3.Nature of roots :

Nature of the roots of the given equation depends upon thenature of its discriminant D i.e. b

2

4ac.Suppose a, b, c

∈

R, a

≠

0 then(i)If D > 0

⇒

roots are real and distinct (unequal)(ii)If D = 0

⇒

roots are real and equal (Coincident)(iii)If D < 0

⇒

roots are imaginary and unequal i.e.non real complex numbers.Suppose a, b, c

∈

Q a

≠

0 then(i)If D > 0 and D is a perfect square

⇒

roots are rational& unequal(ii)If D > 0 and D is not a perfect square

⇒

roots areirrational and unequal.or a quadratic equation their will exist exactly 2 roots realor imaginary. If the equation ax

2

+ bx + c = 0 is satisfied formore than 2 distinct values of x, then it will be an identity & will be satisfied by all x. Also in this case a = b = c = 0.

PAGE # 2PAGE # 1

4.Conjugate roots :

Irrational roots and complex roots occur in conjugate pairsi.e.if one root

α

+ i

β

, then other root

α

i

β

if one root

α

+

β

, then other root

α

β

5.Sum of roots :

S =

α

+

β

=

−

ba

=

−

CoefficientofxCoefficientofx

2

Product of roots

:P =

αβ

=

ca

=

consttermCoefficientofxtan

2

6.ormation of an equation with given roots :

x

2

Sx + P = 0

⇒

x

2

(Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0

7.Roots under particular cases :

or the equation ax

2

+ bx + c = 0, a

≠

0(i)If b = 0

⇒

roots are of equal magnitude but of oppositesign.(ii)If c = 0

⇒

one root is zero and other is b/a(iii)If b = c = 0

⇒

both roots are zero(iv)If a = c

⇒

roots are reciprocal to each other.

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOKMATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510PAGE # 4PAGE # 3

(v)If a > 0, c < 0 or a < 0, c > 0

⇒

roots are of oppositesigns(vi)If a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 or a < 0, b < 0, c < 0

⇒

bothroots are ve(vii)If a > 0, b < 0 , c > 0 or a < 0, b > 0, c < 0

⇒

bothroots are +ve.

8.Symmetric function of the roots :

If roots of quadratic equation ax

2

+ bx + c, a

≠

0 are

α

and

β

,then(i)(

α

β

) =

()

α β αβ+ −

2

4

= ±

baca

2

4

−

(ii)

α

2

+

β

2

= (

α

+

β

)

2

2

αβ

=

baca

22

2

−

(iii)

α

2

β

2

= (

α

+

β

)

()

α β αβ+ −

2

4

=

− −

bbaca

22

4

(iv)

α

3

+

β

3

= (

α

+

β

)

3

3(

α

+

β

)

αβ

=

− −

bbaca()

23

3

(v)

α

3

β

3

= (

α

β

) [

α

2

+

β

2

αβ

]=

()

α β αβ+ −

2

4

[

α

2

+

β

2

αβ

]=

()bacbaca

223

4

− −

(vi)

α

4

+

β

4

= (

α

2

+

β

2

)

2

2

α

2

β

2

={(

α

+

β

)

2

2

αβ

}

2

2

α

2

β

2

=

baca

222

2

−

. H GI K J

2

22

ca

(vii)

α

4

β

4

=(

α

2

+

β

2

) (

α

2

β

2

) =

− − −

bbacbaca()

224

24

(viii)

α

2

+

αβ

+

β

2

=

(

α

+

β

)

2

αβ

=

baca

22

+

(ix)

αβ

+

βα

=

α βαβ

22

+

=

()

α β αβαβ+ −

2

2

(x)

αβ

. H GI K J

2

+

βα

. H GI K J

2

=

α βα β

4422

+

=

[()]bacacac

222222

22

− −

9.Condition for common roots :

The equations a

1

x

2

+ b

1

x + c

1

= 0 and a

2

x

2

+ b

2

x + c

2

= 0have(i)One common root if

bcbccaca

12211221

−−

=

cacaabab

12211221

−−

(ii)Both roots common if

aa

12

=

bb

12

=

cc

12

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOKMATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510PAGE # 6PAGE # 5

10.Maximum and Minimum value of quadratic expression :

In a quadratic expression ax

2

+ bx + c = a

xbaDa

+

. H GI K J

−

LNMMOQPP

24

22

,Where D = b

2

4ac(i)If a > 0, quadratic expression has minimum value

44

2

acba

−

at x =

−

ba2

and there is no maximum value.(ii)If a < 0, quadratic expression has maximum value

44

2

acba

−

at x =

−

ba2

and there is no minimum value.

11.Location of roots :

Let f(x) = ax

2

+ bx + c, a

≠

0 then w.r.to f(x) = 0(i)If k lies between the roots then a.f(k) < 0(necessary & sufficient)(ii)If between k

1

& k

2

their is exactly one root of k

1

, k

2

themselves are not rootsf(k

1

) . f(k

2

) < 0(necessary & sufficient)(iii)If both the roots are less than a number kD

≥

0, a.f(k) > 0,

−

ba2

< k(necessary & sufficient)(iv)If both the roots are greater than kD

≥

0, a.f(k) > 0,

−

ba2

> k(necessary & sufficient)(v)If both the roots lies in the interval (k

1

, k

2

)D

≥

0, a.f(k

1

) > 0, a.f(k

2

) > 0, k

1

<

−

ba2

< k

2

(vi)If k

1

, k

2

lies between the rootsa.f(k

1

) < 0, a.f(k

2

) < 0(vii)

λ

will be the repeated root of f(x) = 0 if f(

λ

) = 0 and f'(

λ

) = 0

12.or cubic equation ax

3

+ bx

2

+ cx + d = 0 :

We have

α

+

β

+

γ

=

−

ba

,

αβ

+

βγ

+

γα

=

ca

and

αβγ

=

−

da

where

α

,

β

,

γ

are its roots.

13.or biquadratic equation ax

4

+ bx

3

+ cx

2

+ dx + e = 0 :

We have

α

+

β

+

γ

+

δ

=

ba

,

αβγ

+

βγδ

+

γδα

+

γδβ

=

−

da

αβ

+

αγ

+

αδ

+

βγ

+

βδ

+

γδ

=

ca

and

αβγδ

=

ea