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Math Formula Sheet AIEEE

Math Formula Sheet AIEEE

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Published by Nitin Kumar

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Published by: Nitin Kumar on Feb 11, 2011
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOKMATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK
E D U C A T I O N S
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
QUADRATIC EQUATION & EXPRESSION
1.Quadratic expression :
A polynomial of degree two of the form ax
2
+ bx + c, a
0 iscalled a quadratic expression in x.
2.Quadratic equation :
An equation ax
2
+ bx + c = 0, a
0, a, b, c
R has two andonly two roots, given by
α
=
+
bbaca
2
42
and
β
=
bbaca
2
42
3.Nature of roots :
Nature of the roots of the given equation depends upon thenature of its discriminant D i.e. b
2
 4ac.Suppose a, b, c
R, a
0 then(i)If D > 0
roots are real and distinct (unequal)(ii)If D = 0
roots are real and equal (Coincident)(iii)If D < 0
roots are imaginary and unequal i.e.non real complex numbers.Suppose a, b, c
Q a
0 then(i)If D > 0 and D is a perfect square
roots are rational& unequal(ii)If D > 0 and D is not a perfect square
roots areirrational and unequal.or a quadratic equation their will exist exactly 2 roots realor imaginary. If the equation ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 is satisfied formore than 2 distinct values of x, then it will be an identity & will be satisfied by all x. Also in this case a = b = c = 0.
PAGE # 2PAGE # 1
4.Conjugate roots :
Irrational roots and complex roots occur in conjugate pairsi.e.if one root
α
+ i
β
, then other root
α
 i
β
if one root
α
+
β
, then other root
α
β
5.Sum of roots :
S =
α
+
β
=
ba
=
CoefficientofxCoefficientofx
2
Product of roots
:P =
αβ
=
ca
=
consttermCoefficientofxtan
2
6.ormation of an equation with given roots :
x
2
 Sx + P = 0
x
2
 (Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0
7.Roots under particular cases :
or the equation ax
2
+ bx + c = 0, a
0(i)If b = 0
roots are of equal magnitude but of oppositesign.(ii)If c = 0
one root is zero and other is b/a(iii)If b = c = 0
both roots are zero(iv)If a = c
roots are reciprocal to each other.
 
MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOKMATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK
E D U C A T I O N S
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510PAGE # 4PAGE # 3
(v)If a > 0, c < 0 or a < 0, c > 0
roots are of oppositesigns(vi)If a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 or a < 0, b < 0, c < 0
bothroots are ve(vii)If a > 0, b < 0 , c > 0 or a < 0, b > 0, c < 0
bothroots are +ve.
8.Symmetric function of the roots :
If roots of quadratic equation ax
2
+ bx + c, a
0 are
α
and
β
,then(i)(
α
β
) =
()
α β αβ+
2
4
= ±
baca
2
4
(ii)
α
2
+
β
2
= (
α
+
β
)
2
 2
αβ
=
baca
22
2
(iii)
α
2
β
2
= (
α
+
β
)
()
α β αβ+
2
4
=
bbaca
22
4
(iv)
α
3
+
β
3
= (
α
+
β
)
3
 3(
α
+
β
)
αβ
=
bbaca()
23
3
(v)
α
3
β
3
= (
α
β
) [
α
2
+
β
2
αβ
]=
()
α β αβ+
2
4
[
α
2
+
β
2
αβ
]=
()bacbaca
223
4
(vi)
α
4
+
β
4
= (
α
2
+
β
2
)
2
 2
α
2
β
2
={(
α
+
β
)
2
2
αβ
}
2
2
α
2
β
2
=
baca
222
2
G
2
22
ca
(vii)
α
4
β
4
=(
α
2
+
β
2
) (
α
2
β
2
) =
bbacbaca()
224
24
(viii)
α
2
+
αβ
+
β
2
=
 
(
α
+
β
)
2
αβ
=
baca
22
+
(ix)
αβ
+
βα
=
α βαβ
22
+
=
()
α β αβαβ+
2
2
(x)
αβ
G
2
+
βα
G
2
=
α βα β
4422
+
=
[()]bacacac
222222
22
9.Condition for common roots :
The equations a
1
x
2
+ b
1
x + c
1
= 0 and a
2
x
2
+ b
2
x + c
2
= 0have(i)One common root i
bcbccaca
12211221
=
cacaabab
12211221
(ii)Both roots common if 
aa
12
=
bb
12
=
cc
12
 
MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOKMATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK
E D U C A T I O N S
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
E D U C A T I O N S
, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510PAGE # 6PAGE # 5
10.Maximum and Minimum value of quadratic expression :
In a quadratic expression ax
2
+ bx + c = a
xbaDa
+
G
LNMMOQPP
24
22
,Where D = b
2
 4ac(i)If a > 0, quadratic expression has minimum value
44
2
acba
at x =
ba2
and there is no maximum value.(ii)If a < 0, quadratic expression has maximum value
44
2
acba
at x =
ba2
and there is no minimum value.
11.Location of roots :
Let f(x) = ax
2 
+ bx + c, a
0 then w.r.to f(x) = 0(i)If k lies between the roots then a.f(k) < 0(necessary & sufficient)(ii)If between k
1
& k
2
their is exactly one root of k
1
, k
2
themselves are not rootsf(k
1
) . f(k
2
) < 0(necessary & sufficient)(iii)If both the roots are less than a number kD
0, a.f(k) > 0,
ba2
< k(necessary & sufficient)(iv)If both the roots are greater than kD
0, a.f(k) > 0,
ba2
> k(necessary & sufficient)(v)If both the roots lies in the interval (k
1
, k
2
)D
0, a.f(k
1
) > 0, a.f(k
2
) > 0, k
1
<
ba2
< k
2
(vi)If k
1
, k
2
lies between the rootsa.f(k
1
) < 0, a.f(k
2
) < 0(vii)
λ
will be the repeated root of f(x) = 0 if f(
λ
) = 0 and f'(
λ
) = 0
12.or cubic equation ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d = 0 :
We have
α
+
β
+
γ 
=
ba
,
αβ
+
βγ 
+
γα
=
ca
and
αβγ 
=
da
where
α
,
β
,
γ 
are its roots.
13.or biquadratic equation ax
4
+ bx
3
+ cx
2
+ dx + e = 0 :
We have
α
+
β
+
γ 
+
δ
=
ba
,
αβγ 
+
βγδ
+
γδα
+
γδβ
=
da
αβ
+
αγ 
+
αδ
+
βγ 
+
βδ
+
γδ
=
ca
and
αβγδ
=
ea

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