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Parenteral Medication

Parenteral Medication

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Published by Charm Arroyo

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Published by: Charm Arroyo on Feb 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/28/2013

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1PREPARED BY: Charm Arroyo
PARENTERAL MEDICATION
Parental drug administration of any medication involves injecting a drug either directlyinto a skin (intradermal), muscle (intramuscular), vein (intravenous), artery (intrarterial),abdominal cavity (intrperitoneal), heart (intracardiac) or into the fatty tissue beneath the skin(subcutaneous). The speed of absorption varies but is definitely faster than the usual oraladministration. This type of drug administration is commonly used when more complete andfaster absorption of a drug is needed.
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SY
RINGE
A
syringe is a device used for injecting, removing or infusing fluids. They are mostcommonly known in health care settings for injecting medications and for use in removing bloodfrom the body. Syringes can differ in size and type, and they can be made of glass or plastic. Thesyringe chosen usually depends on its intended purpose. The syringe consists of a plunger, barrel, hub, needle and the needle's protective cover. It is important that all parts of a syringecoming into contact with the body be kept free of contamination.
 
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 PREPARED BY: Charm Arroyo
1.
 
The Plunger
The plunger is located at the end of the syringe and can be made of clouded or colored glass or plastic. Its purpose is to fill or empty the barrel. The plunger is pulled back to fill the barrel and is pushed forward for emptying.
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The Barrel
The barrel is the part of the syringe that contains the fluid, whether it is amedication, blood or a solution drawn from the body. It is usually calibrated in tenths (atenth is equal to 0.1 milliliters) to make precise measurements of the quantity of the fluidthat is to be given or removed. The barrel can range in size from 0.5 mL to 50 mL.
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The Hub
The lower end of the syringe, opposite the plunger, terminates into a needle hub.The hub consists of a needle adapter that allows the needle to be attached to the syringe.The hub also functions to lock the needle in place while using the syringe for its desiredfunction.
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The Needle
The needle consists of the shaft, lumen and bevel. Needles vary in length, size of the shaft and size of the lumen. The shaft is the metal's length and is usually chosendepending upon the route and site of administration, physical mass of the client, and thethickness of the medication. The lumen, also known as the bore, is the hollow spacewithin the needle. The diameter of the lumen is known by the needle's number gauge.The lumen is chosen with the same specifications as the shaft. The last part of the needle,the bevel, is the pointed end and determines the needle's sharpness.
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Protective Cover/Cap
The protective cover/cap is provided to maintain the needle's sterility. Needlesticks are a common way of transporting infections to health care providers and clients.The needle's bevel is covered to limit the amount of accidents that could happeninvolving needles and to ensure that only the intended client receives the needle stick. Inan attempt to reduce contamination and increase safety, most needles are disposable.
COMMON ROUTE
S
OF ADMINI
S
TRATION
1.
 
INTRADERMAL ROUTE
It is the administration of a small amount of fluid into the dermal layer of the skin.It is frequently done as a diagnostic measure, such as for tuberculin testing (screening testfor tuberculosis referred to as a mantoux test) and allergy testing (placing very smallamounts of the suspected antigen or allergen in a solution under the skin). Most commonand recommended site for injection would be at the inner surface of the forearm.. Often the tuberculin syringe is the only syringe with fine enough calibrations tomeasure the minute dose that is used.
A
26-gauge needle, which is one-fourth to one-half inch in length, is usually selected. The fluid is in a small welt, phleb or "wheal" (a smallswelling of the skin due to the medication placed under the skin) just under the surface of the skin and between its layers.
 
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 PREPARED BY: Charm Arroyo
GUIDELINE
S
IN ADMINI
S
TERING INTRADERMAL INJECTION
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C
heck the Doctor¶s Orders regarding the administration of intradermal medication.
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G
ather the equipments and medication required.
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Perform hand washing.
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A
ssemble needle and syringe and remember to adhere to strict aseptic techniques.
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C
heck Expiration Date of Medication
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Draw Medication into Syringe
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Identify the patient and observe the 10 Rs of medicine administration.
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Select Injection Site which is usually the palmer (inner) forearm or subscapular region of the back is selected. The site selected should be an easily obtainable area and relatively freefrom being rubbed by clothing.
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Prepare Patient by placing the arm in a relaxed position, elbow flexed and palm facingupward, exposing palmer or inner arm area.
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C
lean the injection site in circular motion from inner to outer portion.
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Remove protective cap.
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Stabilize injection site.
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 pply downward pressure directly below and outside the preparedinjection site using non- dominant hand.
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Insert the needle almost parallel to the skin (15- 20 degrees) with bevel facing upwards.Stabilize the needle by placing your non-dominant hand¶s thumb on top of the insertedneedle.
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Inject Medication. It is not necessary to aspirate the syringe since no large vessels arecommonly found in the superficial layer of the skin. Using dominant hand, push plunger slowly forward until the medication is injected and a wheal appears at the site of theinjection. The appearance of a wheal indicates that the medication has entered the area between the intradermal tissues. If a wheal does not appear, withdraw the needle and repeatthe procedure in another site.
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W
ithdraw the needle at the same angle that it was inserted.
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C
over the injection site without pressure. In case of skin testing, do not cover the injectionsite. Instead, mark the circumference of the wheal and record time 30 minutes post injection.
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Evaluate the reaction of the medication.
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Properly dispose used equipments. Separate equipments properly and dispose needles todesignated needle container.
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Record
A
dministration of Intradermal Injection.

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REFERENCE -- to follow. will revise soon.
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