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LANDSAT AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR MAPPING SHALLOW WATER HABITATS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA NJ Quinn P Dalzall 1985

LANDSAT AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR MAPPING SHALLOW WATER HABITATS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA NJ Quinn P Dalzall 1985

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Published by Jacque C Diver
Proceedings of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, 1985, Vol. 5

LANDSAT AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR MAPPING SHALLOW WATER HABITATS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA

L'IMAGERIE LANDSAT EN TANT QU'INSTRUMENT DE CARTOGRAPHIE EN EAU PEU PROFONDE EN PAPOUASIE-NOUVELLE.GUINEE rl.J.
P.
QUrril

Flsheries Department, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, Lae,
PAPUA NEW GUINEA

Fj.sherles Research, Department of Primary Industry, Kavieng,

DtrLZf,LL

L.I.H.S., Lae,

PAPUA NEW GUINEA B.L. KOJIS
PAPU
Proceedings of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, 1985, Vol. 5

LANDSAT AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR MAPPING SHALLOW WATER HABITATS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA

L'IMAGERIE LANDSAT EN TANT QU'INSTRUMENT DE CARTOGRAPHIE EN EAU PEU PROFONDE EN PAPOUASIE-NOUVELLE.GUINEE rl.J.
P.
QUrril

Flsheries Department, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, Lae,
PAPUA NEW GUINEA

Fj.sherles Research, Department of Primary Industry, Kavieng,

DtrLZf,LL

L.I.H.S., Lae,

PAPUA NEW GUINEA B.L. KOJIS
PAPU

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Proceedings
of
the
Fifth
International Coral
Reef
Congress,
Tahiti,
1985,
Vol.
5
LANDSAT
AS
A
MANAGEMENT
TOOL
FOR
MAPPING
SHALLOWWATER HABITATS
IN
PAPUANEW GUINEA
L'IMAGERIE
LANDSATEN
TANT
QU'INSTRUMENT
DE
CARTOGRAPHIEENEAU PEUPROFONDEEN PAPOUASIE-NOUVELLE.GUINEE
rl.J.
QUrril
Flsheries
Department,
Papua
New
Guinea
Universityof
Technology,
Lae,
PAPUA
NEW
GUINEA
P.
DtrLZf,LL
Fj.sherles Research,
Department
of
Primary
Industry,
Kavieng,
PAPUA
NEW
GUINEA
B.L.
KOJIS
L.I.H.S.,
Lae,
PAPUANEW GUINEA
ABSITACT
Surveys
of coastal conlrtunitiesare lmportant in orderto establish
aninventory
of
the
nationelresources.
The
use
of an earth reaources satell-lte system
(LANDSAT)
is
demonbtrated
to
containthe spectral
and
spatial. resolution suitable for
mapplng
shallow water
cofimunitles
introplcal
Papua
New
Guinea.
A
Landsat
multi-spectral
image
of the
Kavieng
regionof
New
Irelandislandin tt,"
Bismark
Archipelago lras
used
to
map
shalloo
water
assernblages.
As
[Dst of thePaclfic iswithout
narlti-spectral
scanner
images,we
reconmend
thatareceiving station
be established.
REST'IIE
Lesdtudes des
communaut6s
littoralesjouentungrand16ledans
1|
6tabllsselnent
drun
lnventairedes ressources nationales.
Pour
ce faire,il a it6
mont16
que
lrutilisation
dtun
systlne
de
satellites
(LANDSAT)
pennettaitde cartographier 1es
communautds
troplcalesde
Papouasd-e-Nouve1le
Guin6e,eneeupeuprofonde.Une
lmage
LANDSAT
plurispectraledela
rdgion
de Kavieng
(Nouvelle
Irl,ande),
dans
I'archlpel
Biemark,
aainsiserviiycartographier
des
zonee
peuprofondes.
Conme
une
rnajorit6 duPacifiquenrest pascouvertperltirnagerie
acanner
plurispectrale,
nous
reccr.rrnandons
1a
mise en
place
depostear6cepteurs.
 
INTRODUCTION
Papua
Nect
Grinea(ptlC)
is
a
newly
independent
nation
(1975)
witha total
land
areaof
46I,694sq
km.IPconsistsof the
eastern
halfof
the
islandof
New
Grineaandamyriadof
srnaller
islandsandhasa coastlineofover
7,000
km'
IheoceanwithintheExclusive
Fconomic
Zone
(EEZ)
ofapua
New
G:inea,
which
the
governrent
m.rst
contrpl
and
regulate,forne
a
vast
area
overseven
tifiestheland
ntass-
To
date
large
areas
of
PNG's
seas
are
poorly
charted
(Ygung,
1982;
Done,
1983)
and
nrany
coral
reefsareonlyjustbeing
acknowledged
in
the
sc
ientificliterature(t<o3isandQuinn,
1984;
1985
).fiieoceananeawith
Papua
New
Grinears
EEZ
is
cor/ered
withchartsvarying
fromscalesof
1:1,700,000
to
1:12,500,
the
latterfor
harboursand
ch
s
approaches.
For
general navigation
L:300,000
chartsare
adequate
while
1:100,000
charts are
rlDre
suitablefor coastal
naviagation.
Table
1 liststhe chatt
coverage
within
Papua
New
G:inea'sdBZ
and
thePortionof
surveyedarea
on
charts ofparticularscale.
Many
ofthe
surveyed
inforrnatio]n.
Of
the
2,339,900
k
only
rnay
be
employed
toprovide interiminformtionuntilsurveysbyconventional
IIEans
can
be
conducted.Forexanple,Quinn(1984)
used
LANDSAT
tonpnitor thenoxious
vreedSalvinia
noLesta
on
the
Sepik
River,
Papua
New
cuiiEl---TtaE[]E6-atwould
have
nornrally
beendone
only
at
great
expense
andbeenplagued withlogistic
problems.
Additionally,strictenvironnEntallaws
in
PapuaNew
GrinearequirethenDnitoring
and
evaluation
ofdevelopnentprojects-
LANDSAT
inngery
has
already
proved
usefultohelp
nonitor
siltdepositionassociatedwitha
proposed
port
developnent(Quinnand
Kojis,)-982;
1984).
The
use
of
LANDSAT
to
nrap
the
shaLlow
water
habitatssuchas theGreatBarrierReef
was
proposed
by
Smith
et al.,(7975a;b)
and
applied
byBina
eta1.(1978)andJnpp etal.
(1981;
1983
).TheMinistryofPrirnary Industries
in
Fiji isconsideringusing
LANDSAT
to
define
habitatsforgiant clamrecolonization
(Adans,
pers.
cornm.
).
The
purposeofthisstudyis to
assess
LANDSAT
rn:lti-spectraldatafor
unpping
shallow
water
habitats
such
as
nrangrove
lined
estuaries,
coralreefhabitats
andsea
grass
beds
in
Papua
New
G:inea
and
to
evaluate
itspotentialfor
use
in otherdevelopingcountriesinthe
South
Pacific
region.
METHODS
The
LANDSAT
System
LANDSAT
isa satellite
designed
to
establish
thevalueof relatively
coarse
resolution,
large
area, reflectiverrulti-spectralinngeryfrom
an
altitudeofapproxinrately918 km.
Sunlight
reflected
from
theearthis separatedinto
four
spectralbands'
Ihese
bands
record
light of
the
followingwavelengths:band4,0'5-0'6
pm
(green);band5,0.6-
0.7
pm(red);
band
6,0.
7
-
0.8prn
(nearinfrared
);
band
7
'0.8-
1.1
prn
(infrared).Theircontributiontothe
image
issimilartoadditivecolor
photography,
but theirseparaterecordingaddsadinensionto
the
interpretationdifficulttoachieve
with
photography.Furtherdetailsofthe
LANDSAT
system
are availablein
Thonras
(1975).
Iheattenuationoflight
by water
isalso
a
strongfunctionof
wavelength(Mcore,1980)
and
theirnplicationfor
LANDSAT
rerDte
sensingcan
be
sumrnarized
as
follows:
Band
4hasthe
naxirnrm
r^rater
penetration
(15
m) and
is
nost
affected
by
Coverage
of
Papua
New
Grinea's
EEZ
Young,
1981
)
is
surveyresurvey
1981
)..lfuch ofthisareaneedsto
be
ortheexisting
data
verified
(Young,
use of
LANDSAT
data tocreate
a
"HyREGMpIiIC"
(Hydrographic
Graphic,
I]:100,000rrBP)to
u
phic
Reconnaissance
to
update
hydrograPhicand
bathy#tricdetailin
PapuaNew
G:inea
has
been
sugge]sted
by
Young
(1983a;
1983b).
Fundar/.ental
totheadninistrationof the
EEZ
is a
knovfledge
ofthe
resources
located
withinits
bounda]ry,
bothin typeanddistribution.Shallow seasand
nunerous
reefshave
always
proved
halardousfor raritineactivities
and
discouragldexploration.
Where
developing
countriesrust
increasingly
relyupon
developnent
of their
own
resourcestoachieve
financial
independence,
it is
importaflt
thatevery]opportunitybetakentofacilitate
explor
atiEfficientexploration
and
developrcnlt
ofresourceswillassist
developing
countriesto
achieve
prominence
in acorpetitive
internatioJoal
narketplace.
Papua
New
Guinea
has
largeareas of
shallow
water
habitatsrequiringinltialidentificationor updatenepping.As conventional
charting
nethodsare slow,
hazardous
and
expensive,
alternatir/e
low
costrapidre[Dte
sensing
nethodsTable
Hydrologlcal
Chart
(af
ter
Scale%
Coverage
%
of
area
of.
EEZ
coveredsurveyed
I:
12
,500
I
:
100,000
1:
250,000
l:
l,
700,000
1:I,700,000
1
:
75,000
1
150,000
1:
300,000
1:1,000,000
smaller
nd
I
425
80100
83
bv
76
79
N.A.
-546-
 
atrDspheric
scattering.
Band
5isFDrerapidly
attenuated
by
water
and
nost
of it is lost in
the
upper
5n.
Band
6
contains
apartofthe
red
(visible)portionof the
spectrum,
but a
majority
of its
response
is inthe near infra-red.
In
clear,
deep
water
nDst
near
infra-red is
absorbed
within 20 cmof the surface.
Band
7
penetrates
only the upper millineters of water,but
is
useful inplottingheavilysiltedr,rater.In
nost
situations band7is
best
used
to
disctiminate
Land
from
waterntasses.
These signals are,
ofcourse,
affected
by
the state ofthe
sea
andthe
atrosphere. It isrecognized that
LANDSAT
can
delineate, but not distinguishbetween
the
patternsof
bathynetry
(e.g.,
Blna
et al.,
1978)
and
turbidity(e.g.,Jetlov, 1976;
ltunday
and
Alfoldi,
1979).
Mapping
spatialpatternsand
signature
variations in
deep
water
has
been
investigated
in
Australia
(Thom,son
andCarpenter,1981).
ArDs
and
Alfoldi
(L979)
and ltundayand
Alfoldi
(1979)haveconpared
variations inthe
LANDSAT
signature
withactualphysical
nEasurerents
of
sedinent
load in the r,ratercolurm. Wolanski et
aL
.
(1984)
investlgatedriverplunns
and
mixing
on
the
!'raters
oftheftlfof
Papua
and
Northern
Great
Barrier
Reef
using
LANDSAT
irnagery.The
selective
absorption
of light by
water,
nolecularscattering and incidentradiation allplay
a roLe
in
sea
color.The color ofturbid
water
results fromthe selective
absorption
by
substances
carried in the nater(Jerlov,
1976).
In areas whereno co[ponentof thesignalis
confused
by
sea
bottom
reflectance,properties
of
seawater
rny
be studied
using
LANDSAT
data.
The
use
of
LANDSAT
on
the
Great
Barrier
Reef
shelf has
shown
that
vrhen
the
water
is less
than
5
m
deep,
or turbid with concentrations
higher
than
5
ppm
of fineparticles,
bands
4
and
5
have
significant signal
leve1s
above
background
noise(Jupp
et al.,1983).In
regions
of
deeperwater
and/or
lessturbidity only
snra11
variations
in
band
4exist
nraking
it dtfficultto
delineatedepth
andwaterrnssesand thus requiring
repeated
innges.
Processlng
TechniquesComputer
aided
analysisof
LANDSAT
data
uses
an
interactive
programrE
cal1ed
LANSAT
runnlng
on
a
PDP
II
134computer
atthe
Papua
New Guinea
Universityof Technology. Theprogran
was
written in f'ortrenby Dr.
Frank
Honey
to
accept
data from
theAustralian
LANDSAT
Station
(ALS).The
fornrat oftheALS
LANDSAT
tapes ls
band
interleaved
by
line
(BIL),
Thedatafromthe
LANDSAT
tapes
is
transferredto an
RK-05
disc,
where
allocated
space
allows
sub-scenes
of5IZlines by
5I2
pixelsto be
accomnodated.
A
BASIC
program
called
LSSTOR
is
used
to
copy
the data frorn
the
tapes
tothedisc
from
where
the
infornration
is
read
off for
LANSAT.
Each
LANDSAT
image
was
enhenced
using
an
algorlthm
devised
by obtaining
spectral signatures frornseveralareas
with
suspected sinilerphysicaland biological
features.
To
display the
LANDSAT
data an
Electohone
color display terninal, a
Matrox
colour
display
interface
was
used. Upto256lines by
256
pixels
may
be
displayed
lnI0colors.
A
LANDSAT
nultl-spectralilllagefrorn
a
computer
corpatibletape
imaged
by
Landsat 3
on
l0
August
1981
(path
101,
row 62) wasused
to
chart shallowwatercomnunities
around
Kavleng
Harbour
(2034's.,150047,E.).
A
recordof
each
image
was
nrade
usinga
200
mm
lens
on
a
35
mm
cartera and
photographing
the
cathode
ray
screen.
Shutter speeds
of<1/15 sec. $/ere
usedto
ellminatea band effectassociated with
the
cathode
ray
tube
projection.
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
The
Image
Using
10colorbandsthehabitats
around
Kavieng
are displayed in Figure I{nd
codes
listedin
Table
2.
As
this
scene
isjuston
the
horizonof theAustralian Landsat
receiving
station,thereis a lot of
noise
associated
with
thisinagethatis uncharacteristicof
rrDst
inngery.
Owing
to therelatively
unsophisticated
data
processingfacilities available, we
are
unable
to
rrsnDoth'r
theinnge.
Many
of the
singlecolored
pixels
sorE
distance
away
from
others
ofthe
sane
color
r.rould
otherwise
be eliminated
as
they are noise artifacts
and
notthe results
of
true
sensing.
Raw
i,ANDSAT
inragery
of
shallow
water habltats
such
as
coralreefs
nnybe
difficultto interpretvisually.
A
darkpatch
may
be
interpreted as
a
deep
lagoonor sea
grass
bed
or
nud
flat
and
a
very bright
area could
be
a shallowlagoon
with
whitesand botton or coral rubble.
Wakes
around
islands
canbe
delinated
(Wol-anski
et a1.,
1984)
any
may
be
confused
r+ith
turbid or
shallowwater.
It istherefore
necessary
thatclassifications
be
conducted
with the aid of
soneoneknowledgeable
about
the
area
andpost processingsurveys
be
conductedtosarplelocationsto verifyclassificationsat least in the initial
stages.
The
relative
area
and surface
configuration
ofeach colorzone
depends
on
the tidallevelduring inageryacquisition.A
temporalcomparlson
of the
band zones
of the sarr
shallowv/ater
habitatshould indicatewtrichareas
are
subjecttothegreatestspectral
changes
during
tidal
npvenent.Sources
of
Error
There
aretwonajorsources of error
ln
nrapping
shallowwater habitatsuslng digitalclassificationtechniques. The first is
in
correctlyclassifying aplxelaa aparticularhabitat,e.g., coral,
and
thesecond is in
the
accuracy
of
rrepping
shallowwater
habitats
where
errors will
occur from both
classlficetion
errors
and mlxed
pixels
on
thefield
boundary.
The
accuracyofclassifyingthe
habltats
depends
upon
a
number
of factors: 1)
The
abltitytodiscriminatethehabitats
from
other
habitateon
thedatesof acquisition.
Submrged
reefs
looklike rd.ldlyturbld
water
and
shallow
reefe
likerore turbid water.2)Thetraining
data
used to establish classparanEterefor
the
classifier
m.rstbe
representatlve
of that
class.
The
best
way
of
ensuring
thls ls to statistically
sanple
enough
identical habitats.3)Settingofthe class decisionvalues. If the
decision
bounds
areeet too tightly
thenreny
pixelsthatrepresentthec1ass, but having slightlydifferent
responee
valueswillnot
be
included
and
becom
errors of onlssion. If the
bounds are
set too wide then therewillbe signiflcanterrorsof
commission.
-547-

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