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Concrete Shell Structures

Concrete Shell Structures

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Published by: CivilEngClub on Feb 12, 2011
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Anton Tedesko
Frank Baron
David P. BillingtonRichard R. Bradshaw
Felix Candela
John V. Christiansen
ACI 334.1R-92
(Reapproved 2002)
Concrete Shell StructuresPractice and Commentary
Reported by ACI Committee
Committee mebers voting on the 1992 revisions:Phillip
Jack ChristiansenJohn F. Abel
David P. Billington
Arthur J. Boyt, Jr.Eli W. Cohen
Morris N. Fialkow
Ajaya K. GuptaRobert B. HaberAlfred
ParmeSecretaryWilhelm Flugge
Richard M. Gensert
Otto GruenwaldMilo S. Ketchum, Jr.
Kye J. Han
Harry G. Harris
Mark A. KetchumMilo S. KetchumStefan J. Medwadowski
F. Meyer
MockryJohn K. Parsons
 A report on the practical aspects of shell design including recommen-dations and a commentary for designers of thin concrete shells. Generalguidance based on current practice is given on analysis, proportioning,reinforcing, and construction. A selected bibliography on analyticalmethods featuring design tables and aids is included to assist the engineer.
ACI committee report; aggregate size; buckling; construction; design;double-curvature shell; edge beam; folded plate; formwork; model; prestressing;reinforcement; shell; single-curvature shell; splice; stiffening member; supportingmember, thickness; thin shell.
Preface, pg. 334.1R-2CRITERIA
Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices andCommentaries are intended for guidance in designing,planning, executing, or inspecting construction and inpreparing specifications. References to these documentsshall not be made in the Project Documents. If items foundin these documents are desired to be a part of the ProjectDocuments, they should be phrased in mandatory languageand incorporated into the project documents.Eric C. Molke
Vice ChairmanStefan J. Medwadowski
Mario G. Salvadori
John B. SkillingBruno Thurlimann
Stuart E. SwartzSecretary
William C. Schnobrich
Alexander Scordelis
David B. South
Anton Tedesko
Daniel F. TullyArnold Wilson
2.1-Assumptions2.2-Analysis of thin shells2.3-Analysis of supporting members2.4-Model analysis
4.1-Allowable stresses and load factors4.2-Shell thickness4.3-Shell reinforcement4.4-Prestressing
4.5-Concrete cover over reinforcementChapter 5-Construction, pg. 334.1R-4
ACI 334.1R-92 replaces ACI 334.1R-64 (Revised 1982) (Reapproved 1956)effective Mar. 1.1992. The 1992 revision included minor editorial corrections andthe deletion of the year designation for ACI 318 to make the current code theapplicable reference.
2002 American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or byany means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any elec-tronic or mechanical device, printed or written or oraI, or recording for sound orvisual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device,unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.
Copyright American Concrete Institute
Provided by IHS under license with ACI
Licensee=/5959825001, User=alkadhimi, ahmad
Not for Resale, 11/28/2005 10:33:43 MST
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
    -    -        `  ,  ,        `  ,        `        `  ,  ,  ,        `  ,        `        `        `  ,        `  ,  ,  ,        `  ,        `        `        `  ,        `        `        `    -        `    -        `  ,  ,        `  ,  ,        `  ,        `  ,  ,        `    -    -    -
5.1-Aggregate size5.2-FormsPART II-COMMENTARY
2.1-Thin shells of single curvature2.2-Folded plates2.3-Thin shells of double curvature
7.1-Forms and decentering7.2-Concrete placing7.3-Curing of concrete
With the increased use of thin shells has come anincreased understanding of their behavior through fieldobservations, laboratory tests, and mathematical refine-ment of analytic procedures. However, because of thewide range of geometry possible with thin shells, the ac-cumulated understanding is still limited. For some thinshell systems, such as cylindrical barrel shells, the designcan be made with the same degree of accuracy as forconventional reinforced concrete construction. For otherthin shell systems, such as those of double curvature, thedesign must be at times based on less refined analyses inthe same sense as the empirical design of flat platefloors. Therefore, it was felt desirable to divide thisreport into two parts.The first part,entitled “Criteria,” covers generaldesign recommendations. The second part, entitled“Commentary,” contains data of general interest to thedesigners of thin shells and reflects current practice. A“Selected Bibliography” is included as reference materialon current methods of analysis.The analysis, design, and construction of thin shellstructures requires a thorough knowledge in this field.Therefore, the recommendations contained herein arenot sufficient in themselves for the satisfactory executionof thin shell structures. Designers are referred to the
many texts and technical papers that are readily available.
CHAPTER l-GENERAL1.1-Definitions1.1.1
Thin shells
-Curved or folded slabs whose thick-nesses are small compared to their other dimensions.They are characterized by their three dimensional loadcarrying behavior which is determined by their geomet-rical shape, their boundary conditions and the nature of the applied load. Thin shells are usually bounded by sup-porting members and edge members.
Auxiliary members
a broad sense any mem-ber located along the boundary of a shell or shell seg-ment, with a capacity to stiffen the shell and distribute orcarry load in composite action with the shell. They are
classified as follows in accordance with established usage,
although for certain shells a member may serve in a com-bination of capacities:a)
Supporting members
arches, trusses, dia-phragms, etc., along the edges of thin shells whichserve both to support and to stiffen the thin shellb)
 Edge members
-Beams, trusses, etc., along theedges of thin shells which do not form part of themain supporting structure, but serve to stiffen andact integrally, i.e.,in composite action with the
thin shell to carry loads to the supporting members
Stiffening members
which serve only to stiff-en the thin shell or
control local deformations
Elastic analysis
structural analysis based on
elastic behavior and involving assumptions which are suit-
able to approximations of three dimensional elastic be-havior. Analyses based on the results of elastic modeltests, when conducted properly, are considered as valid
elastic analyses.
These recommendations cover the design of thinshell concrete structures and only apply to the thin shellportions of such structures unless otherwise stated.
All applicable sections of the ACI Building Code(ACI 318), including the precast and prestressed concrete
sections of the Code, should be followed in the design of shell structures except where they conflict with the fol-
lowing provisions.
CHAPTER 2-ANALYSIS2.l-Assumptions2.1.1
For an elastic analysis, concrete may be assumed
Copyright American Concrete Institute
Provided by IHS under license with ACI
Licensee=/5959825001, User=alkadhimi, ahmad
Not for Resale, 11/28/2005 10:33:43 MST
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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uncracked, homogeneous, and isotropic.
Poisson’s ratio may be assumed equal to zero.
2.2-Analysis of thin shells2.2.1
Elastic behavior is the commonly accepted basisfor determining stresses, displacements, and stability of 
thin shells.
The rigor and the necessary degree of accuracy
required in the analysis of any specific thin shell structure
depend on certain critical factors. These include: theconfiguration of the surface and the degree of curvature(geometry), the size of the structure, the type of boun-dary conditions and the nature of the loading. Because of the complex interrelationship between these factors, spe-cific recommendations regarding rigor and accuracy of analysis are not given.
Approximate methods of analysis which do not
satisfy compatibility of strains or stresses in the shell may
be used in cases where authoritative sources and experi-ence have shown them to be applicable within the rangeemployed.
Equilibrium checks of internal stresses andexternal loads are to be made to insure consistency of 
An ultimate strength analysis may be used onlyas a check on the adequacy of the design. It is not to beused as a sole criterion for design, except where it can beproven to be applicable.
2.3-Analysis of supporting members
Supporting members shall be designed in accor-dance with a recognized elastic analysis.
A portion of the thin shell shall be assumed toact with the supporting member.
2.4-Model analysis2.4.1
Models may be used as the basis for a designand/or to check the validity of assumptions involved in amathematical analysis. When models are used, only thoseportions which significantly affect the items under studyneed be simulated. Every attempt must be made to en-sure that these tests reveal the quantitative behavior of the prototype structure.
When investigating shells for stability, consid-eration shall be given to the possible reduction in thevalue of the buckling load caused by large deflections,creep effects, and the deviation between the actual andtheoretical shell surface.
stresses and load factors4.1.1
Unless otherwise stated, concrete and steelstresses and load factors will be as specified in theBuilding Code (ACI 318).
Minimum standard cylinder
shall be
3000 psi.
4.2-Shell thickness4.2.1
Shell thickness is not always dictated by strength
requirements but often by deformation of edge members,stability, and cover over reinforcing steel.
Stress concentrations due to abrupt changes insection shall be considered and, where necessary, the thinshell shall be gradually thickened.
4.3-Shell reinforcement4.3.1
The stress in the reinforcement may be assumedat the allowable value independently of the strain in theconcrete.
Where the tensile stresses vary greatly in mag-nitude over the shell, as in the case of cylindrical shells,the reinforcement capable of resisting the total tensionmay be concentrated in the region of maximum tensilestress. Where this is done, the percentage of crack con-trol reinforcing in any 12 in. width of shell shall be notless than 0.35 percent throughout the tensile zone.
The principal tensile stresses shall be resistedentirely by reinforcement.
Reinforcement to resist the principal tensilestresses, assumed to act at the middle surface of theshell, may be placed either in the general direction of thelines of principal tensile stress (also referred to as par-allel to the lines of principal tensile stress), or in two orthree directions. In the regions of high tension it is advis-able, based on experience, to place the reinforcing in thegeneral direction of the principal stress.
The reinforcement may be considered parallel tothe line of principal stress when its direction does notdeviate from the direction of the principal stress morethan 15 deg. Variations in the direction of the principalstress over the cross section of a shell due to momentsneed not be considered for the determination of the max-imum deviation. In areas where the stress in the rein-forcing is less than the allowable stress a deviationgreater than 15 deg can still be considered parallelplacing; a stress decrease of 5 percent shall be consideredto compensate for each additional degree of deviationabove 15 deg. Wherever possible, such reinforcing mayrun along lines considered most practical for construc-tion, such as straight lines.
Where placed in more than one direction, thereinforcement shall resist the components of the principaltension force in each direction.
In those areas where the computed principaltensile stress in the concrete exceeds 300 psi, placementof at least one layer of the reinforcing shall be parallel tothe principal tensile stress, unless it can be proven that adeviation of the reinforcing from the direction parallel tothe lines of principal tensile stress is permissible because
Copyright American Concrete Institute
Provided by IHS under license with ACI
Licensee=/5959825001, User=alkadhimi, ahmad
Not for Resale, 11/28/2005 10:33:43 MST
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
    -    -        `  ,  ,        `  ,        `        `  ,  ,  ,        `  ,        `        `        `  ,        `  ,  ,  ,        `  ,        `        `        `  ,        `        `        `    -        `    -        `  ,  ,        `  ,  ,        `  ,        `  ,  ,        `    -    -    -

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