CONCRETE SHELL STRUCTURES334.1R-3
uncracked, homogeneous, and isotropic.
Poisson’s ratio may be assumed equal to zero.
2.2-Analysis of thin shells2.2.1
Elastic behavior is the commonly accepted basisfor determining stresses, displacements, and stability of
The rigor and the necessary degree of accuracy
required in the analysis of any specific thin shell structure
depend on certain critical factors. These include: theconfiguration of the surface and the degree of curvature(geometry), the size of the structure, the type of boun-dary conditions and the nature of the loading. Because of the complex interrelationship between these factors, spe-cific recommendations regarding rigor and accuracy of analysis are not given.
Approximate methods of analysis which do not
satisfy compatibility of strains or stresses in the shell may
be used in cases where authoritative sources and experi-ence have shown them to be applicable within the rangeemployed.
Equilibrium checks of internal stresses andexternal loads are to be made to insure consistency of
An ultimate strength analysis may be used onlyas a check on the adequacy of the design. It is not to beused as a sole criterion for design, except where it can beproven to be applicable.
2.3-Analysis of supporting members
Supporting members shall be designed in accor-dance with a recognized elastic analysis.
A portion of the thin shell shall be assumed toact with the supporting member.
Models may be used as the basis for a designand/or to check the validity of assumptions involved in amathematical analysis. When models are used, only thoseportions which significantly affect the items under studyneed be simulated. Every attempt must be made to en-sure that these tests reveal the quantitative behavior of the prototype structure.
CHAPTER 3-STABILITY ANALYSIS3.1-Buckling3.1.1
When investigating shells for stability, consid-eration shall be given to the possible reduction in thevalue of the buckling load caused by large deflections,creep effects, and the deviation between the actual andtheoretical shell surface.
stresses and load factors4.1.1
Unless otherwise stated, concrete and steelstresses and load factors will be as specified in theBuilding Code (ACI 318).
Minimum standard cylinder
Shell thickness is not always dictated by strength
requirements but often by deformation of edge members,stability, and cover over reinforcing steel.
Stress concentrations due to abrupt changes insection shall be considered and, where necessary, the thinshell shall be gradually thickened.
The stress in the reinforcement may be assumedat the allowable value independently of the strain in theconcrete.
Where the tensile stresses vary greatly in mag-nitude over the shell, as in the case of cylindrical shells,the reinforcement capable of resisting the total tensionmay be concentrated in the region of maximum tensilestress. Where this is done, the percentage of crack con-trol reinforcing in any 12 in. width of shell shall be notless than 0.35 percent throughout the tensile zone.
The principal tensile stresses shall be resistedentirely by reinforcement.
Reinforcement to resist the principal tensilestresses, assumed to act at the middle surface of theshell, may be placed either in the general direction of thelines of principal tensile stress (also referred to as par-allel to the lines of principal tensile stress), or in two orthree directions. In the regions of high tension it is advis-able, based on experience, to place the reinforcing in thegeneral direction of the principal stress.
The reinforcement may be considered parallel tothe line of principal stress when its direction does notdeviate from the direction of the principal stress morethan 15 deg. Variations in the direction of the principalstress over the cross section of a shell due to momentsneed not be considered for the determination of the max-imum deviation. In areas where the stress in the rein-forcing is less than the allowable stress a deviationgreater than 15 deg can still be considered parallelplacing; a stress decrease of 5 percent shall be consideredto compensate for each additional degree of deviationabove 15 deg. Wherever possible, such reinforcing mayrun along lines considered most practical for construc-tion, such as straight lines.
Where placed in more than one direction, thereinforcement shall resist the components of the principaltension force in each direction.
In those areas where the computed principaltensile stress in the concrete exceeds 300 psi, placementof at least one layer of the reinforcing shall be parallel tothe principal tensile stress, unless it can be proven that adeviation of the reinforcing from the direction parallel tothe lines of principal tensile stress is permissible because
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